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See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
See through C
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See through C

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The presentation given at PCCOE, Nigdi, Pune by Prof. Tushar B Kute in workshop on "See through C". …

The presentation given at PCCOE, Nigdi, Pune by Prof. Tushar B Kute in workshop on "See through C".
http://tusharkute.com

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  • 1. See through C Tushar B Kute http://www.tusharkute.com
  • 2. Objectives Be able to use arrays, pointers, and strings in C programs Be able to explain the representation of these data types at the machine level, including their similarities and differences http://www.tusharkute.com 2
  • 3. http://www.tusharkute.com 3 Arrays in C No bounds checking! Allowed – usually causes no error array[10] may overwrite b Unlike Java, array size in declaration int array[10]; int b; array[0] = 3; array[9] = 4; array[10] = 5; array[-1] = 6; Compare: C: int array[10]; Java: int[] array = new int[10]; All elements of same type – homogenous First element (index 0) Last element (index size - 1)
  • 4. http://www.tusharkute.com 4 Array Representation Homogeneous → Each element same size – s bytes  An array of m data values is a sequence of m×s bytes  Indexing: 0th value at byte s×0, 1st value at byte s×1, … m and s are not part of representation  Unlike in some other languages  s known by compiler – usually irrelevant to programmer  m often known by compiler – if not, must be saved by programmer a[0] a[1] a[2] 0x1000 0x1004 0x1008 int a[3];
  • 5. http://www.tusharkute.com 5 Array Representation char c1; int a[3]; char c2; int i; c1 a[0] a[1] a[2] i 0x1000 0x1004 0x1008 0x100C 0x1014 c20x1010 Could be optimized by making these adjacent, and reducing padding (by default, not) Array aligned by size of elements
  • 6. http://www.tusharkute.com 6 Array Sizes What is sizeof(array[3])? sizeof(array)? int array[10]; 4 40 returns the size of an object in bytes
  • 7. http://www.tusharkute.com 7 Multi-Dimensional Arrays int matrix[2][3]; matrix[1][0] = 17; matrix[0][0] matrix[0][1] matrix[0][2] 0x1000 0x1004 0x1008 matrix[1][0] matrix[1][1] matrix[1][2] 0x100C 0x1010 0x1014 Recall: no bounds checking What happens when you write: matrix[0][3] = 42; “Row Major” Organization
  • 8. http://www.tusharkute.com 8 Sample Program #include<stdio.h> int main() { int arr[10], c; printf(“Enter 10 elements: “); for(c=0;c<10;c++) scanf(“%d”,&arr[c]); printf(“Array elements are: “); for(c=0;c<10;c++) printf(“n%d”,arr[c]); }
  • 9. http://www.tusharkute.com 9 Exercise Programs Program-1  Write a program to input 10 elements from user and find addition of all the numbers. Program-2  Write a program to input 5 numbers from keyboard and find greatest among all the elements. Program-3  Write a program input 10 array elements and separate odd and even numbers from the array.
  • 10. http://www.tusharkute.com 10 Memory Addresses Storage cells are typically viewed as being byte-sized  Usually the smallest addressable unit of memory • Few machines can directly address bits individually  Such addresses are sometimes called byte-addresses Memory is often accessed as words  Usually a word is the largest unit of memory access by a single machine instruction • CLEAR’s word size is 8 bytes (= sizeof(long))  A word-address is simply the byte-address of the word’s first byte
  • 11. http://www.tusharkute.com 11 Pointers Why Pointers? Advantages? Disadvantages?
  • 12. http://www.tusharkute.com 12 Pointers Special case of bounded-size natural numbers  Maximum memory limited by processor word-size  232 bytes = 4GB, 264 bytes = 16 exabytes A pointer is just another kind of value  A basic type in C int *ptr; The variable “ptr” is a pointer to an “int”.
  • 13. http://www.tusharkute.com 13 Pointer Operations in C Creation & variable Returns variable’s memory address Dereference * pointer Returns contents stored at address Indirect assignment * pointer = val Stores value at address Of course, still have... Assignment pointer = ptr Stores pointer in another variable
  • 14. http://www.tusharkute.com 14 Using Pointers int i1; int i2; int *ptr1; int *ptr2; i1 = 1; i2 = 2; ptr1 = &i1; ptr2 = ptr1; *ptr1 = 3; i2 = *ptr2; i1: i2: ptr1: 0x1000 0x1004 0x1008 … ptr2: … 0x100C 0x1010 0x1014 1 2 0x1000 0x1000 3 3
  • 15. http://www.tusharkute.com 15 Using Pointers (cont.) Type check warning: int_ptr2 is not an int int1 becomes 8 int int1 = 1036; /* some data to point to */ int int2 = 8; int *int_ptr1 = &int1; /* get addresses of data */ int *int_ptr2 = &int2; *int_ptr1 = int_ptr2; *int_ptr1 = int2; What happens?
  • 16. http://www.tusharkute.com 16 Using Pointers (cont.) Type check warning: *int_ptr2 is not an int * Changes int_ptr1 – doesn’t change int1 int int1 = 1036; /* some data to point to */ int int2 = 8; int *int_ptr1 = &int1; /* get addresses of data */ int *int_ptr2 = &int2; int_ptr1 = *int_ptr2; int_ptr1 = int_ptr2; What happens?
  • 17. http://www.tusharkute.com 17 Pointer Arithmetic pointer + number pointer – number E.g., pointer + 1 adds 1 something to a pointer char *p; char a; char b; p = &a; p += 1; int *p; int a; int b; p = &a; p += 1;In each, p now points to b (Assuming compiler doesn’t reorder variables in memory) Adds 1*sizeof(char) to the memory address Adds 1*sizeof(int) to the memory address Pointer arithmetic should be used cautiously
  • 18. http://www.tusharkute.com 18 The Simplest Pointer in C Special constant pointer NULL  Points to no data  Dereferencing illegal – causes segmentation fault  To define, include <stdlib.h> or <stdio.h>
  • 19. http://www.tusharkute.com 19 Generic Pointers void *: a “pointer to anything” Lose all information about what type of thing is pointed to  Reduces effectiveness of compiler’s type-checking  Can’t use pointer arithmetic void *p; int i; char c; p = &i; p = &c; putchar(*(char *)p); type cast: tells the compiler to “change” an object’s type (for type checking purposes – does not modify the object in any way) Dangerous! Sometimes necessary…
  • 20. http://www.tusharkute.com 20 Pass-by-Reference void set_x_and_y(int *x, int *y) { *x = 1001; *y = 1002; } void f(void) { int a = 1; int b = 2; set_x_and_y(&a,&b); } 1 2 a b x y 1001 1002
  • 21. http://www.tusharkute.com 21 Arrays and Pointers Dirty “secret”: Array ≈ pointer to the initial (0th) array element a[i] ≡ *(a+i) An array is passed to a function as a pointer  The array size is lost! Usually bad style to interchange arrays and pointers  Avoid pointer arithmetic! Really int *array int foo(int array[], unsigned int size) { … array[size - 1] … } int main(void) { int a[10], b[5]; … foo(a, 10)… foo(b, 5) … } Must explicitly pass the size Passing arrays:
  • 22. http://www.tusharkute.com 22 Arrays and Pointers int a[]={4,5,1,2,8,9,3,0,7,6}; int *p, i; p = a; // points first element. //p = &a[0]; printf("nArray elements are: n"); for(i=0;i<10;i++) { printf(" %dn", *p); p++; }
  • 23. http://www.tusharkute.com 23 Passing arrays to functions Arrays can be passed to the functions as parameters. In such cases the arrays and pointers are not differentiated. e.g. int print(int *a, int c) { int i; for(i=0;i<c;i++,a++) printf("%dn",*a); }
  • 24. http://www.tusharkute.com 24 Returning pointers from functions Pointer can be the return type of the function. It is used for returning multiple values from function. e.g. int * increment(int *a, int c) { int i, *p; p = a; for(i=0;i<c;i++,a++) *a = *a + 1; return p; }
  • 25. http://www.tusharkute.com 25 Call by value vs. reference Call by value Call by reference The function is called by directly passing value of variable as argument The function is called by directly passing address of variable as argument We need to declare a general variable as function argument We need to declare a pointer variable as argument. Calling function by value does not changes actual values of variables Calling function by reference changes actual values of variables It is a slow way of calling function as we are calling it by passing value It is a fast way of calling function as we are calling it by passing address of a variable
  • 26. http://www.tusharkute.com 26 Example-2: int swap1(int x, int y) { int t; t = x; x = y; y = t; } int swap2(int *x, int *y) { int t; t = *x; *x = *y; *y = t; }
  • 27. http://www.tusharkute.com 27 File pointers As file is stored on the disk, it also contains the address. The FILE is used to store the address of the file. e.g. FILE *fp;
  • 28. http://www.tusharkute.com 28 Opening a file The fopen() function of the stdio.h function is used to open the file. Syntax: FILE * fopen(char *path, char *mode); path – path of the file to open. Mode – mode to open. It may contain values: r – reading mode. w – writing mode. a – appending mode.
  • 29. http://www.tusharkute.com 29 Reading from a file The functions used to read from the file are:  int fscanf(FILE *fp, char *format...);  int fgetc(FILE *fp); Example: FILE * fp; fp = fopen(“file.txt”, “r”); fscanf(fp, “%s”, str); ch = fgetc(fp);
  • 30. http://www.tusharkute.com 30 Writing into a file The functions used to write in the file are:  int fprintf(FILE *fp, char *format...);  int fputc(int ch, FILE *fp); Example: FILE * fp; fp = fopen(“file.txt”, “w”); fprintf(fp, “Hello World”); fputc('a', fp);
  • 31. http://www.tusharkute.com 31 Exercise Write a program to open a file which has integer elements stored in it. Count total negative numbers out of these all elements.
  • 32. http://www.tusharkute.com 32 Strings In C, strings are just an array of characters  Terminated with ‘0’ character  Arrays for bounded-length strings  Pointer for constant strings (or unknown length) char str1[15] = “Hello, world!n”; char *str2 = “Hello, world!n”; H e l l o , w lo r d !nlength H e l l o , w lo r d !nterminator Pascal, Java, … C, … C terminator: ’0’
  • 33. http://www.tusharkute.com 33 String length Must calculate length: Provided by standard C library: #include <string.h> int strlen(char str[]) { int len = 0; while (str[len] != ‘0’) len++; return (len); } can pass an array or pointer Check for terminator array access to pointer! What is the size of the array???
  • 34. Pointer to Pointer (char **argv) http://www.tusharkute.com 34 Passing arguments to main: int main(int argc, char **argv) { ... } an array/vector of char * Recall when passing an array, a pointer to the first element is passed size of the argv array/vector Suppose you run the program this way UNIX% ./program hello 1 2 3 argc == 5 (five strings on the command line)
  • 35. http://www.tusharkute.com 35 char **argv argv[0] argv[1] argv[2] 0x1000 0x1008 0x1010 argv[3] argv[4] 0x1018 0x1020 “./program” “hello” “1” “2” “3” These are strings!! Not integers!
  • 36. http://www.tusharkute.com 36 Thank you

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