MIS 08 Geographical Information System


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The series of presentations contains the information about "Management Information System" subject of SEIT for University of Pune.
Subject Teacher: Tushar B Kute (Sandip Institute of Technology and Research Centre, Nashik)

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MIS 08 Geographical Information System

  1. 1. Management information system<br />Third Year Information Technology<br />Part 08<br />Geographical Information System<br />Tushar B Kute,<br />Department of Information Technology,<br />Sandip Institute of Technology and Research Centre, Nashik<br />http://www.tusharkute.com<br />
  2. 2. Flying Blind<br />Jul 24th 2003 <br /> The Economist <br />
  3. 3. We Live in Two Worlds<br />Natural World<br />Constructed World<br />Managed<br />Self-Regulating<br />. . . These Are Increasingly In Conflict <br />
  4. 4. Managing Places<br />Seeing the Whole<br />Context and Content<br />Watersheds<br />Communities<br />Neighborhoods<br />Districts<br />Patterns<br />Linkages<br />Trends<br />
  5. 5. Abstracting the Real World<br />
  6. 6. What is GIS?<br />A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer-based system including software, hardware, people, and geographic information<br />A GIS can:<br />create, edit, query, analyze, and display map information on the computer<br />
  7. 7. Geographic Information System<br />Geographic – 80% of government data collected is associated with some location in space<br />Information - attributes, or thecharacteristics (data), can be used to symbolize and provide further insight into a given location<br />System – a seamless operation linking the information to the geography – which requires hardware, networks, software, data, and operational procedures <br /> …not just software! <br /> …not just for making maps!<br />
  8. 8. Who uses GIS?<br />International organizations<br />UN HABITAT, The World Bank, UNEP, FAO, WHO, etc.<br />Private industry<br />Transport, Real Estate, Insurance, etc. <br />Government <br />Ministries of Environment, Housing, Agriculture, etc.<br />Local Authorities, Cities, Municipalities, etc.<br />Provincial Agencies for Planning, Parks, Transportation, etc.<br />Non-profit organizations/NGO’s<br />World Resources Institute, ICMA, etc.<br />Academic and Research Institutions<br />Smithsonian Institution, CIESIN, etc.<br />
  9. 9. The possibilities are unlimited…<br />Environmental impact assessment<br />Resource management<br />Land use planning<br />Tax Mapping<br />Water and Sanitation Mapping<br />Transportation routing<br />and more ...<br />What can you do with a GIS?<br />
  10. 10. How does a GIS work?<br />GIS data has a spatial/geographic reference<br />This might be a reference that describes a feature on the earth using:<br />a latitude & longitude<br />a national coordinate system<br />an address<br />a district<br />a wetland identifier<br />a road name<br />
  11. 11. Very high<br />3<br /> Scrub<br />17<br />Clay<br />Polygon<br />A GIS stores information about the world as a collection of thematic layers that can be linked together by geography<br />Geography and Databases<br />
  12. 12. 107’<br />Vectors<br />Dimensions<br />Topology<br />Surveys<br />ABC<br />Networks<br />Images<br />Annotation<br />CAD<br />Drawings<br />27 Main St.<br />3D Objects<br />Attributes<br />Addresses<br />Terrain<br />GIS provides Data Integration<br /><ul><li> Roads
  13. 13. Land Parcels
  14. 14. Population
  15. 15. Utilities
  16. 16. Land Mines
  17. 17. Hospitals
  18. 18. Refugee Camps
  19. 19. Wells
  20. 20. Sanitation</li></li></ul><li>Two fundamental types of data<br />Vector <br />A series of x,y coordinates <br />For discrete data represented as points, lines, polygons<br />Raster <br />Grid and cells<br />For continuous data such as elevation, slope, surfaces<br />A Desktop GIS should be able to handle both types of data effectively!<br />
  21. 21. Raster<br />Vector<br />Real World<br />Data Representation<br />
  22. 22. Other features of a GIS<br />Produce good cartographic products (translation = maps)<br />Generate and maintain metadata<br />Use and share geoprocessing models<br />Managing data in a geodatabase using data models for each sector<br />
  23. 23. Hint – having GIS software does not a cartographer make!<br />Good to know something about these issues when creating a map and doing spatial analysis… <br />Scale/Resolution<br />Projection<br />Basic cartographic principles regarding design, generalization, etc.<br />
  24. 24. Societal<br />Projects<br />Systems<br />Networks<br />Integrated<br />Coordinated<br />Cooperative<br />Collaborative<br />GIS is (rapidly) evolving<br />
  25. 25. GIS as part of your decision making process…<br />Problem Statement – ?????<br />*<br />Geospatial<br />data<br />Ground-<br />Based<br />data<br />Socio-<br />Economic<br />data<br />Other<br />Ancillary<br />data<br />Formulate the question<br />Observe, <br />acquire data<br />* Added<br />Analyze<br />Mitigate and change<br />Seek solutions<br />Diagram courtesy of <br />Michael Goodchild, UCSB<br />
  26. 26. Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI)<br />Definition - the technology, policies, standards, human resources, and related activities necessary to acquire, process, distribute, use, maintain, and preserve spatial data<br />Part of many nation’s e-Gov strategy<br />www.GSDI.org<br />
  27. 27. Citizens<br />Inventory<br />Geographic<br />Knowledge<br />The World<br />Decision Support<br />
  28. 28. World Summit on Sustainable Development 2002<br /> “Promote the development and wider use of earth observation technologies, including satellite remote sensing, global mapping and geographic information systems, to collect quality data on environmental impacts, land use and land use changes.”<br />
  29. 29.
  30. 30. Poverty Indicators<br />
  31. 31. Monitoring fair trade - local banana farmers<br />
  32. 32. GIS for planning underdeveloped areas<br />A Tale of Two Cities<br />The formal and the informal<br />Both deserve GIS… complexity is not an accuse!<br />Source: Rosario Giusti de Perez<br />
  33. 33. GIS for planning underdeveloped areas<br />Urban poverty measured in terms of quantity and quality of public space.<br />The lack of public open space.<br />Barrios have a percentage of public space between 5% and 10%. <br />In the average city total space <br />constitute over 30% of the total space.<br />The absence of adequate infrastructure,<br />Urban furniture and maintenance which <br />combined produces unhealthy and insecure conditions.<br />Source: Rosario Giusti de Perez<br />
  34. 34. GIS for planning underdeveloped areas<br />DEALING WITH A COMPLEX MORPHOLOGY REQUIERES: <br />Understanding the existing physical order<br />Identifying the social order conformed by community <br />ties and with no physical evidence<br />Transformation capacity is determined through a detailed review of the built form<br />Source: Rosario Giusti de Perez<br />
  35. 35. GIS for planning underdeveloped areas<br />Analysis of the social network and community ties<br />Sustainability is preserving <br />the small social groups<br />The social network is topology related.<br />Source: Rosario Giusti de Perez<br />
  36. 36. Achieving the MDGs <br />requires all of us…<br />…working together!<br />
  37. 37. reference<br /><ul><li>WamanJawadekar, "Management Information Systems” , 4th Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited.
  38. 38. E. Turban, J. Aronson, T.P. Liang, R. Sharda, “Decision Support and Business Intelligence Systems”, 8th Edition, Pearson Education.</li>