Talk about the limitations of each criteria: page 476Show Video: Hearing Our Voices The faces behind mental illness“Abnormal”: what is it?StigmaMedication% homeless mentally illHave hard time making their voices heardDifficult to have control over their own livesMajor strain on relationshipsWRITE THESE QUESTIONS ON THE BOARD:statistical infrequency – examples in video?How is their illness causing disability or dysfunction?personal distress – examples in video?In what ways are they in violation of norms?
Hoarding example from page 479
Classifying Abnormal Behavior - The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) categorizes disorders and provides detailed descriptions useful for communication among professionals. The current DSM-IV-TR is organized according to five major dimensions, called axes (NEXT SLIDE), which are guidelines for making decisions about symptoms and over 200 diagnostic categories grouped into 17 subcategories (READ EXAMPLES FROM PAGE 482).
More detail – page 481
People with anxiety disorders have persistent feelings of threat that are unreasonable and often paralyzing.
In generalized anxiety disorders (GAD), there is a persistent free-floating anxiety. In panic disorder, fear or discomfort arises abruptly and peaks in 10 minutes or less.
Phobias are exaggerated fears of specific objects or situations, such as agoraphobia, a fear of being in open spaces.In obsessive-compulsive disorder, persistent anxiety-arousing thoughts (obsessions) are relieved by ritualistic actions (compulsions) such as hand-washing.
Explaining Anxiety Disorders - Research on the causes of anxiety disorders have focused on cognitive processes, learning, biology, and sociocultural influences. The cognitive approach emphasizes thinking styles, such as:Hypervigilance: constantly scan the environment for dangerHypersensitivity: magnifying ordinary threats and failures and criticismSelf-preoccupation: obsessively worried about others’ evaluationsLearning theorists suggest anxiety disorders result from classical and operant conditioning, as well as modeling and imitation. Harmless spider gets paired with frightening experience (panic attacK)The biological perspective suggests:genetic pre-dispositions: monkey fears of toy snakes vs. toy rabbits (video)disrupted biochemistry & unusual brain activity : overreaction of the autonomic nervous system; even stimulation by substances like caffeineSociocultural: Increasingly fast paced lives: increased mobility (and isolation), decreased job security
Understanding Mood Disorders - Mood disorders are characterized by extreme disturbances of emotional states. The hallmark of major depressive disorder is a pervasive feeling of deep sadness which interferes with basic ability to function, feel pleasure, or maintain interest in life. Bipolar disorder is characterized by episodes similar to major depressive disorder alternating with episodes of mania in which speech and thinking are rapid, and the person may experience delusions of grandeur and engage in impulsive behaviors.(READ CRITERIA FROM DSM – USE NEXT SLIDE TO ILLUSTRATE)
Explaining Mood Disorders - Biological theories of mood disorders indicate areas of the left frontal cortex lobe may be involved. Other research emphasizes disruptions in neurotransmitters (especially serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine). Antidepressants are often effective in relieving major depression. Bipolar disorders are generally treated with lithium carbonate. Recent research has also implicated certain brain areas that may trigger episodes of mood disorder. There is also evidence for a genetic predisposition for both major depression and bipolar disorder. The evolutionary perspective suggests moderate depression may be an adaptive response to a loss. Psychoanalytic theories of mood disorders emphasize anger and loss, humanistic theories focus on poor self-concept, and learning theory suggest theories, such as, learned helplessness. Learned helplessness theory suggests that depression results from repeated failures at attempted escape from the source of stress. (ATTRIBUTIONS HANDOUT)
Symptoms of Schizophrenia - The major symptoms are disturbances in perception (impairedfiltering and selection, and hallucinations); language and thought disturbances (impaired logic, word salads, neologisms, and delusions); emotional disturbances (either exaggerated or blunted emotions); and behavioral disturbances (social withdrawal, bizarre mannerisms, catalepsy, waxy flexibility). B. Types of Schizophrenia – For many years researchers have divided the schizophrenias into paranoid, catatonic, disorganized, undifferentiated, and residual subtypes. An alternative classification system has been proposed. Schizophrenic symptoms involving distorted or excessive mental activity (e.g., delusions and hallucinations) would be classified as positive symptoms, whereas symptoms involving behavioral deficits (e.g., toneless voice, flattened emotions) would be classified as negative symptoms.
Explaining Schizophrenia - Biological theories of the causes of schizophrenia emphasizEgenetics (people inherit a predisposition), disruptions in neurotransmitters (primarily dopamine), and abnormalities in brain structure or function (such as enlarged ventricles or low levels of activity in the frontal and temporal lobes). Psychosocial theories of schizophrenia focus on two possible psychosocial contributors. The diathesis-stress model suggests that stress is a trigger for initial episodes and for relapse. Family communication deviance also has been suggested. Studies of family environments suggest that critical and hostile home environments may be linked to a worsening and relapse of schizophrenic symptoms.An evaluation of the theories of the causes of schizophrenia get mixed research support. Both biological and psychosocial theories cannot necessarily determine the direction of cause and effect relationships and each theory does not fit all cases. Overall, schizophrenia is probably best explained with the biopsychosocial model.
Note the differing amounts of brain activity in the normal, schizophrenia, and depressed brains. (Warmer colors = more activity)
Substance abuse (interferes with social or occupational functioning) Substance dependence (causes physical reactions, such as tolerance & withdrawal)Comorbidity: Substance-related disorders also commonly coexist with other mental disorders, including anxiety disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia, and personality disorders Self-medicationAlso called “dual diagnosis”. Genetic predisposition, modeling by the parent, and/or emotional disturbances are cited as possible causes of substance-related disorders that interact.
Dissociative Disorders - In dissociative disorders, critical elements of personality split apart from significant aspects of experience, memory, or consciousness. This split is manifested by failing to recall or identify past experiences (dissociative amnesia), by leaving home and wandering off (dissociative fugue), or by developing completely separate personalities (dissociative identity disorder DID or multiple personality disorder). There is considerable debate over this diagnosis.
Test ppt show ch 14 103
Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders<br />
Studying Psychological Disorders<br />Abnormal Behavior: patterns of emotion, thought, & action considered pathological for one or more of four reasons: <br /><ul><li>statistical infrequency
five dimensions (or “Axes”)</li></li></ul><li>Five Axes of DSM-IV-TR <br />Axis I (current clinical disorders)<br />Axis II (personality disorders & mental retardation)<br />Axis III (general medical information)<br />Axis IV (psychosocial & environmental problems)<br />Axis V (global assessment of functioning)<br />
Anxiety Disorders<br />Anxiety Disorder: overwhelming apprehension & fear accompanied by autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal<br />Five Major Types:<br />Generalized Anxiety Disorder<br />Panic Disorder<br />Phobias<br />Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)<br />Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (Discussed in Chapter 3) <br />
Anxiety Disorders (Continued)<br />3.Phobia: intense, irrational fear & avoidance of a specific object or situation<br />4. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): intrusive, repetitive, fearful thoughts (obsessions), with urges to perform repetitive, ritualistic, behaviors (compulsions)<br />
Mood Disorders<br />Mood Disorders: characterized by extreme disturbances in emotional states<br />Two Types of Mood Disorders:<br /><ul><li>Major Depressive Disorder: long-lasting depressed mood that interferes with the ability to function, feel pleasure, or maintain interest in life
Bipolar Disorder: repeated episodes of mania & depression</li></li></ul><li>Mood Disorders (Continued)<br />Note how major depressive disorders differ from bipolar disorders on this hypothetical graph.<br />
Chapter 13: Multiple choice examples<br />According to your text's complete definition of abnormal behavior, which of the following statistically infrequent behaviors would qualify as abnormal?<br />A) the belief that the CIA is following you<br />B) having your entire body tattooed<br />C) living a completely celibate life<br />D) all of these options<br />
Schizophrenia<br />Schizophrenia: group of psychotic disorders, characterized by a general loss of contact with reality<br />Five areas of major disturbance:<br />Perception (hallucinations) <br />Language(word salad, neologisms) <br />Thoughts (psychosis, delusions) <br />Emotion(exaggerated or flat affect)<br />Behavior [unusual actions (e.g., catalepsy, waxy flexibility)]<br />
Schizophrenia (Continued)<br />Explanations of Schizophrenia:<br />Biological: genetic predisposition, disruptions in neurotransmitters, brain abnormalities<br />Psychosocial: diathesis-stress model, disturbed family communication <br />
Other Disorders (Continued)<br />Dissociative Disorders: splitting apart (dis-association) of experience from memory or consciousness <br />Types of Dissociative Disorders:<br />Dissociative Amnesia<br />Dissociative Fugue<br />Depersonalization Disorder<br />Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)<br />
Other Disorders (Continued)<br />Best known dissociative disorder:<br />Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID): presence of two or more distinct personality systems in the same person at different times (previously known as multiple personality disorder)<br />
Other Disorders (Continued)<br />Personality Disorder: inflexible, maladaptive personality traits causing significant impairment of social & occupational functioning<br />
Other Disorders (Continued)<br />Antisocial Personality Disorder: profound disregard for, & violation of, the rights of others<br />Key Traits: egocentrism, lack of conscience, impulsive behavior, & superficial charm<br />
Other Disorders (Continued)<br />Explanations of Antisocial Personality Disorder<br /><ul><li>Biological:genetic predisposition, abnormal brain functioning
Psychological:abusive parenting, inappropriate modeling</li></li></ul><li>Other Disorders (Continued)<br />Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD): impulsivity & instability in mood, relationships, & self-image<br />Explanations of BPD:<br /><ul><li>Psychological--childhood history of neglect, emotional deprivation, abuse
Chapter 14: Multiple choice examples<br />This is characterized by diffuse anxiety caused by intrusive thoughts and urges to perform repetitive, ritualistic behaviors.<br />A) generalized anxiety disorder<br />B) agoraphobia<br />C) obsessive-compulsive disorder<br />D) ritual abuse<br />
Chapter 14: Multiple choice examples<br />14. A disorder that is characterized by severely disturbed perception, language, thought, emotion, and behavior is _____.<br />A) schizophrenia<br />B) multiple personality disorder<br />C) borderline psychosis<br />D) neurotic psychosis<br />
BAD SANTA<br />Two con men (Billy Bob Thornton and Tony Cox) masquerade as Santa Claus and an elf and knock off shopping malls until they meet an 8-year-old boy who unintentionally reminds them about the true meaning of Christmas.<br />
FINDING NEMO<br />This film from Pixar (Monsters, Inc.) is the story of Nemo (Alexander Gould), a curious young clownfish who has been taken from his home in Australia's Great Barrier Reef and winds up in the office fish tank of a dentist in Sydney. It's up to his shy father, Marlin (Albert Brooks), and Marlin's friend Dory (Ellen DeGeneres) to find him. <br />
CHICAGO Velma is the Windy City's top nightclub star until the night she guns down her cheating husband, after which she becomes an even bigger celebrity, thanks to smooth attorney Billy Flynn (Richard Gere). Roxie also desperately wants fame, so the solution is simple: shoot her abusive lover dead. After Roxie replaces her, an outraged Velma plots Roxie's demise as she obsessively pursues her goal of being back on top. <br />
Gollum, originally known as Sméagol, he was later named Gollum after the disgusting gurgling noise he made in his throat. He is estimated to have been born in the year 2430 of the Third Age. At the time of his death, Gollum was about 589 years old, a remarkable age for a creature who was once a Hobbit, but had been deformed and twisted in both body and mind by the corruption of the Ring. His one desire was to possess the Ring which had enslaved him, and he pursued it for seventy-six years after he lost it.<br />
In Step Brothers, Ferrell plays Brennan Huff, a sporadically employed thirty-nine-year-old who lives with his mother, Nancy (Mary Steenburgen). Reilly plays Dale Doback, a terminally unemployed forty-year-old who lives with his father, Robert (Richard Jenkins). When Robert and Nancy marry and move in together, Brennan and Dale are forced to live with each other as step brothers. As their downright aggressive laziness threaten to tear the family apart, these two middle-aged, immature, overgrown boys will orchestrate an insane, elaborate plan to bring their parents back together.<br />
Successful businessman Dan (Michael Douglas) has a brief, one-night fling with a woman he meets at a cocktail party named Alex (Glenn Close). Little does he realize that she's not really what one would call "mentally stable" — she keeps hounding him, trying to continue their relationship and threatening him. Things keep getting crazier and crazier, and Alex goes to more and more extreme measures to keep Dan in her life, while Dan tries to hide his indiscretion from his wife (Anne Archer) and daughter. <br />
Robert De Niro plays Travis Bickle, a lonely, mentally unstable Vietnam War veteran who drives a New York City cab at night, disgusted by what he sees as a rotting Big Apple. After wooing a senator's campaign worker (Cybill Shepherd), Travis is spurned after taking her to a porn theater on their first date. Bickle's social ineptitude, continued isolation, and anger aimed at cleaning up the city's "scum" lead to violence. <br />
Rachel Berry uses every opportunity to propel herself toward stardom, so when Will Schuester revives glee club, she eagerly signs up, certain it will showcase her many talents. She puts a gold star after her name, as she always does, because she's sure she will be a star someday. <br />Rachel lives with her two dads, who've supported her dreams of Broadway fame, but her perfectionism and driving ambition haven't won her any friends. She's often picked on by popular cheerleaders, and her romantic prospects seem dismal. <br />
Brilliant, aloof and almost entirely lacking in social graces. Sherlock is a unique young man with a mind like a 'racing engine'. Without problems to solve, it will tear itself to pieces. And the more bizarre and baffling the problems the better. He has set himself up as the world's only consulting detective, whom the police grudgingly accept as their superior.<br />