Grammar Translation Method


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Grammar Translation Method (GTM)

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Grammar Translation Method

  1. 1. Presented by Sema KIR 2012, Turkey
  2. 2. The Presentation’s Outline  Introduction  Principles of GTM  Techniques of GTM  Advantages and Disadvantages of GTM  Conclusion
  3. 3.  The Grammar Translation Method of foreign language teaching was first known as the Prussian method.  It is one of the most traditional methods that was originally used to teach “dead” languages such as Latin and Greek.  It was wide spread in Europa and many other countries from 1840s till 1940s but it is less used today.
  4. 4. The goals of teacher:
  5. 5.  The teacher is the authority in the classroom.  The students are passive receivers. Role of teacher and role of students:
  6. 6. • Students translate from one language to another. • They study grammar deductively. • They memorize the grammar rules and examples , and then apply the rules to other examples. • They learn grammatical paradigms such as verb conjugations. • They memorize native – language equivalent for target- language vocabulary words. Characteristics of teaching process:
  7. 7. Most of interaction in classroom is from the teacher to the students. There are little student initiations and little student - student interactions. Interaction :
  8. 8.  Literary language is superior to spoken language.  Culture is viewed as consisting of literature and the fine arts. Language and Culture:
  9. 9.  Vocabulary and grammar are emphasized.  Reading and writting are the primary skills that the students work on. There is much less attention given to speaking and listening. Pronunciation receives little attention. Language areas and language skills:
  10. 10.  The studens speak mostly in their native language. The teacher gives instructions to the students in L1.  If a student’s answers of a question is incorrect, the teacher selects a different student to give the correct answers or s/he replies himself/ herself. Role of native language: Error correction:
  11. 11. Reading passages Reading comprehension Fill-in-the-blanksFormal exam Evaluation:
  12. 12. TechniquesTechniques Diana Larsen-Freeman, Research Scientist and Professor of Linguistics at the University of Michigan in her book Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching provides expanded description of some common activities closely associated with the Grammar Translation Method.
  13. 13. 1.Translation of a literary Passage : Translation target language to native language. 2.Reading Comprehension Questions : a. Questions about the information contained in the passage b. Questions for making inferences c. Questions to releate the
  14. 14. 3. Antonyms / Synonyms: Finding antonyms and synonyms for words or set of words. 4.Cognates: Learning spelling and sound patterns that correspond between L1 ( mother language) and L2 (target language)
  15. 15. 5.Deductive Aplication of Rule: Understanding grammar rules and their expectations , then applying them to new examples. 6.Fill-in-the-blanks: Filling gasp in sentences with new words or items of a particular grammar type.
  16. 16. 7.Memorization:Memorizing vocabulary lists, grammatical rules and grammatical paradigms. 8.Use words in sentences: Students create sentences to illustrate they know the meaning and use of new words. 9.Composition:Students write about a topic using the target language.
  17. 17.  GTM was frequently used at the beginning of the 20th century but today, many thinks that ıt is an unnatural method.  The natural order of learning a language is listening, speaking, reading and writing. That is the way how the child learns his mother tongue in natural surroundings.  But in the Grammar Translation Method the teaching of the second language starts with the teaching of writing and reading. Thus, the learning process is reversed. This poses problems.