The Presentation’s Outline
Principles of GTM
Techniques of GTM
Advantages and Disadvantages of GTM
The Grammar Translation Method of
foreign language teaching was first
known as the Prussian method.
It is one of the most traditional
methods that was originally used to
teach “dead” languages such as Latin
It was wide spread in Europa and
many other countries from 1840s till
1940s but it is less used today.
The teacher is the authority in the
The students are passive receivers.
Role of teacher and role of
• Students translate from one language to
• They study grammar deductively.
• They memorize the grammar rules and
examples , and then apply the rules to other
• They learn grammatical paradigms such as
• They memorize native – language equivalent
for target- language vocabulary words.
Characteristics of teaching
Most of interaction in classroom is from
the teacher to the students.
There are little student initiations and
little student - student interactions.
Literary language is superior to spoken
Culture is viewed as consisting of literature
and the fine arts.
Language and Culture:
Vocabulary and grammar
Reading and writting are the primary skills that
the students work on. There is much less attention
given to speaking and listening. Pronunciation
receives little attention.
Language areas and language
The studens speak mostly in their
native language. The teacher gives
instructions to the students in L1.
If a student’s answers of a question is
incorrect, the teacher selects a different
student to give the correct answers or s/he
replies himself/ herself.
Role of native
Diana Larsen-Freeman, Research Scientist
and Professor of Linguistics at the University
of Michigan in her book Techniques and
Principles in Language Teaching provides
expanded description of some common
activities closely associated with the
Grammar Translation Method.
1.Translation of a literary Passage :
Translation target language to
2.Reading Comprehension Questions
a. Questions about the
information contained in the
b. Questions for making
c. Questions to releate the
3. Antonyms / Synonyms:
Finding antonyms and
synonyms for words or set of
4.Cognates: Learning spelling
and sound patterns that
correspond between L1
( mother language) and L2
5.Deductive Aplication of Rule:
Understanding grammar rules and
their expectations , then applying
them to new examples.
6.Fill-in-the-blanks: Filling gasp
in sentences with new words or
items of a particular grammar
vocabulary lists, grammatical
rules and grammatical
8.Use words in sentences:
Students create sentences
to illustrate they know the
meaning and use of new
about a topic using the target
GTM was frequently used at the
beginning of the 20th century but today,
many thinks that
ıt is an unnatural method.
The natural order of learning a language
is listening, speaking, reading and writing.
That is the way how the child learns his
mother tongue in natural surroundings.
But in the Grammar Translation Method
the teaching of the second language starts
with the teaching of writing and reading.
Thus, the learning process is reversed. This