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  • 1. New Tools for Turf Disease Management in the Landscape Lane Tredway Associate Professor and Extension Specialist Department of Plant Pathology North Carolina State University
  • 2. Turf diseases are stress-induced
  • 3. Turf diseases are stress-induced
  • 4. Turf diseases are stress-induced
  • 5. Many diseases appear similar from a distance
  • 6. Identification of the affected turf species is essential foraccurate disease diagnosis Tall fescue • ridged upper leaf surface Kentucky bluegrass • smooth upper leaf surface
  • 7. Each Turf SpeciesHas Unique ProblemsTall Fescue • brown patch, gray leaf spot, Pythium blightKentucky bluegrass • dollar spot, summer patch, Pythium blight, rust, powdery mildew
  • 8. Symptoms: change in the appearance of the plantStand Symptoms • a change in the appearance of the turf, evident from a distance Plant Symptoms • a change in the appearance of the plant
  • 9. Signs: evidence of the presence of a pathogen mycelium sclerotia Pythium blight red thread
  • 10. turfpathology.org: How to follow along... turfpathology.org facebook.com/turfpathology twitter.com/ncturfpathology feeds.feedburner.com/turfpathology
  • 11. Disease Diagnosis Utility
  • 12. Disease Diagnosis Utility
  • 13. Disease Diagnosis Utility
  • 14. Disease Diagnosis Utility
  • 15. Disease Diagnosis Utility
  • 16. Disease Management Utility
  • 17. Disease Management Utility
  • 18. Disease Management Utility
  • 19. Disease Management Utility
  • 20. Rhizoctonia diseases are the most common anddestructive in landscape turfgrasses. brown patch of tall fescue large patch of zoysiagrass caused by Rhizoctonia solani caused by Rhizoctonia solani
  • 21. QoI and DMI Fungicides for Rhizoctonia control QoI Fungicides DMI Fungicides Compass Bayleton Disarm Banner Heritage Eagle Insignia Torque Tourney QoI + DMI Combinations Trinity Armada Disarm M Headway
  • 22. The QoI fungicides have revolutionized Rhizoctonia control
  • 23. QoI Fungicides: A Growing Chemical Class • Heritage (1996) • Compass (1999) • Insignia (2004) • Disarm (2008)
  • 24. Fungicide Prices: What do they mean? Product Cost per lb Heritage $ 365 Compass $ 300 Banner Maxx $289 (gal) Bayleton $ 81 Eagle $ 73 ProStar $ 50 SysStar $ 43 3336 $ 22 ConSyst $ 12
  • 25. Brown patch control in tall fescue, Charlotte, 2003. Heritage (0.2 oz) Heritage (0.1 oz) Compass (0.25 oz) Compass (0.15 oz) Insignia (0.9 oz) Insignia (0.5 oz) Banner Maxx (2 oz) Bayleton (1 oz) Eagle (0.6 oz) Untreated 0 20 40 60 80 Brown Patch Incidence (%)
  • 26. Fungicide Recommendations for Brown Patch Control Recommended Recommended Product $/acre/day Rate (/1000 ft2) Interval (days) Disarm 0.18 fl oz 28 $5 Heritage 50WG 0.2 oz 28 $7 Heritage TL 1 fl oz 28 $7 Compass 0.2 oz 21 $10 Insignia 0.7 oz 28 $10 ProStar 2.2 oz 28 $10
  • 27. QoI and DMI Fungicides for Rhizoctonia control QoI Fungicides DMI Fungicides Compass Bayleton Disarm Banner Heritage Eagle Insignia Torque Tourney QoI + DMI Combinations Trinity Armada Disarm M Headway
  • 28. Brown patch control in tall fescue, Raleigh, 2009. 15 Heritage TL (1 oz) Tourney (0.37 oz) Trinity (2 oz) Untreated 11.25 Brown Patch Incidence (%) 7.5 3.75 0 19-Jun 26-Jun 7-Jul 29-Jul 3-Aug Treatments applied on 8 Jun, 7 Jul, and 13 Aug
  • 29. DMI + QoI combination products control the mostimportant landscape diseases
  • 30. QoI + DMI Products for Landscape TurfHeadway azoxystrobin + propiconazole (Heritage + Banner)Armada trifloxystrobin + triadimefon (Compass + Bayleton)Disarm M fluoxastrobin + myclobutanil (Disarm + Eagle)
  • 31. Brown patch control in tall fescue, 2004 Heritage (0.2 oz, 28 day) Compass (0.25 oz, 28 day) Armada (0.6 oz, 21 day) Armada (1.2 oz, 21 day) Armada (1.2 oz, 28 day) Untreated 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Brown Patch Incidence (%)
  • 32. Brown patch control in tall fescue, 2006 Armada (1.2 oz) Armada (0.6 oz) Heritage TL (2 fl oz) Heritage TL (1 fl oz) Heritage TL (0.5 fl oz) Headway (3 fl oz) Headway (2 fl oz) Headway (1.5 fl oz) Headway (0.75 fl oz) Untreated 0 3 6 9 12 15 Brown Patch Incidence (%)
  • 33. Brown Patch Control: Combination Products A.I.s Trade Name Rate/1000 ft2 Interval $/acre/daytrifloxystrobin Armada 1.2 21 day $9+ triadimefon flutolanil + SysStar 2.2 28 day $9 thiophanate azoxystrobin + Headway 1.5 28 day $14propiconazole
  • 34. What about granular fungicides?
  • 35. Comparison of granular and sprayable fungicides, Charlotte, 2003. Systemic Fungicide G (87 oz) 3336 (4 oz) Fungicide VII G (85 oz) Bayleton (1 oz) Untreated 0 20 40 60 80 Brown Patch Incidence (%)
  • 36. Bayleton (1 oz) Fungicide VII (85 oz)
  • 37. ???
  • 38. Modern granular carriers are improving fungicideperformance Heritage G Headway G Disarm G
  • 39. Comparison of Granular and Sprayable Fungicides Heritage G (3 lb) Compass G (4 lb) Disarm G (2.3 lb)Heritage WG (0.2 oz) Untreated 0 3 6 9 12 15 Brown Patch Incidence (%) Granular treatments re-applied every 21 days, Heritage 50WG re-applied every 28 days
  • 40. Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ)What’s the real environmental impact? http://www.nysipm.cornell.edu/publications/eiq/
  • 41. Product Rate/1000 ft2 Interval EIQ/monthHeritage 50WG 0.2 oz 28 days 7.3 Rhapsody 5 oz 7 days 7.6Bayer Fungus 2 lbs 14 days 28 Control Scotts Lawn 1.35 lbs 14 days 64Fungus ControlDaconil Ultrex 3.2 oz 14 days 538
  • 42. Kentucky bluegrass diseases are becoming more common in landscapes
  • 43. Mixtures help to reduce brown patch injury 30.0 Coronado + Livingston Coronado + Midnight Brown Patch Incidence (%) 22.5 15.0 7.5 0 100:0 97.5:2.5 95:5 90:10 Mixing Ratio (% by weight)Mixtures planted in Oct 1999Data collected on 29 Jun 2001
  • 44. Mixtures are by weight, not number of seeds Tall Fescue Kentucky Bluegrass 500 seeds/gram 4,800 seeds/gram
  • 45. Mixtures are by weight, not number of seeds Mix Ratio Tall Fescue Kentucky Bluegrass TF:KBG Seeds (#) Seeds (#) 90:10 204,000 218,000 95:5 216,000 109,000 97.5:2.5 221,000 54,000
  • 46. Turfgrass populations may shift over time.... 100 %TF in 1999 %TF in 2002 75Percent Tall Fescue 50 25 0 100:0 97.5:2.5 95:5 90:10 Seed Ratio By Weight (TF:KBG)
  • 47. Dollar spot is active when lows are above 50ºF and highs are below 90ºF
  • 48. Summer patch is active when soil temperatures are above 65ºF
  • 49. turfpathology.org: How to follow along... turfpathology.org facebook.com/turfpathology twitter.com/ncturfpathology feeds.feedburner.com/turfpathology