More with Less: Getting the Most from Your Fungicide Program

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New England Regional Turf Conference
Providence, RI
March 7, 2011

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  • More with Less: Getting the Most from Your Fungicide Program

    1. 1. More With Less: Getting the Most out of YourFungicide ProgramLane P. TredwayAssociate Professor and Extension SpecialistDepartment of Plant PathologyNorth Carolina State University
    2. 2. In most cases, you get what you pay for!
    3. 3. More with Less?Fungicide performance isdetermined by severalfactors that YOU can control.
    4. 4. What factors influence fungicide
    5. 5. Techniques for ImprovingFungicide Performance1. Maintain healthy turf2. Get an accurate diagnosis3. Select the best fungicide4. Time applications properly5. Put the fungicide where the pathogen is6. Provide uniform coverage of the target site7. Prevent fungicide resistance
    6. 6. An apple a day will keep the doctor away.... What does a turf plant need to be healthy? 1. light 2. air (oxygen) 3. food 4. water 6
    7. 7. An apple a day will keep the doctor away.... What does a turf plant need to be healthy? 1. light 2. air (oxygen) 3. food 4. water 6
    8. 8. An apple a day will keep the doctor away.... What does a turf plant need to be healthy? 1. light 2. air (oxygen) 3. food 4. water 6
    9. 9. An apple a day will keep the doctor away.... What does a turf plant need to be healthy? 1. light 2. air (oxygen) 3. food 4. water 6
    10. 10. An apple a day will keep the doctor away.... What does a turf plant need to be healthy? 1. light 2. air (oxygen) 3. food 4. water 6
    11. 11. An apple a day will keep the doctor away.... What does a turf plant need to be healthy? 1. light 2. air (oxygen) 3. food 4. water 6
    12. 12. An apple a day will keep the doctor away.... What does a turf plant need to be healthy? 1. light 2. air (oxygen) 3. food 4. water 6
    13. 13. Nitrogen Fertilization • nitrogen is the nutrient that has the greatest impact on turf growth • as a result, it has the greatest impact on disease development • every turf disease is impacted by nitrogen, either in a positive or negative way • some diseases can be enhanced by EITHER excessive or deficient nitrogen 7
    14. 14. Nitrogen applications should mirror turf growth. 8
    15. 15. Nitrogen excesses are most problematicNitrogen applications should mirror turf growth. 8
    16. 16. Nitrogen deficiencies are most problematicNitrogen applications should mirror turf growth. 8
    17. 17. Brown patch and Pythium blight are enhanced by high nitrogen levels duringsummer. 9
    18. 18. dollar spotanthracnose Pythium root dysfunction“Low-N” diseases are now the most common and severe problems in golf courseputting greens. 10
    19. 19. Get an accurate diagnosis! • some diseases can be diagnosed easily in the field • many cannot and a lab diagnosis is essential 11
    20. 20. Many diseases appear similar from a distance.Root diseases are difficult to distinguish without the aid of amicroscope.
    21. 21. Proper sample collection and shipment are essential to getting an accuratediagnosis.
    22. 22. No disease?What NOW?!?!?• nutrient analysis - soil and tissue• nematode assays• monitor soil health • drainage • layering • black layer
    23. 23. Soils problems are a common cause of turf decline. 15
    24. 24. How do you select the RIGHTMany fungicides are available one for each application?
    25. 25. How do you select a fungicide?
    26. 26. How do you select a fungicide? Heritage (0.2 oz, 28 day) Eagle (1.2 oz, 14 day)
    27. 27. Fungicide SelectionReferences• Product Labels• Chemical Control of Turfgrass Diseases• Pest Control for Professional Turf Managers• TurfFiles Disease Profiles• TurfFiles Fungicide Selection Tool
    28. 28. Selecting the right fungicide is key to success Banner Maxx (4 fl oz) Eagle 20EW (2.4 fl oz) Heritage 50WG (0.4 oz) Insignia (0.9 oz) Compass (0.25 oz) Headway (1.5 fl oz) Armada (1.2 oz) Bayleton (2 oz) Trinity (2 oz) Untreated 0 7.5 15 22.5 30 Summer Patch on Kentucky BluegrassTreatments applied May 2, May 29, and Jun 26Data collected 10 Sept
    29. 29. Selecting the right fungicide is key to success Curalan (1 oz) 26/36 (4 fl oz) Endorse (4 oz) Tourney (0.18 oz) Heritage TL (1 fl oz) Untreated 0 3.75 7.5 11.25 15 Anthracnose of Creeping BentgrassTreatments applied on 14 day interval beginning 9JunData collected 18 Aug
    30. 30. Every Fungicide Has Three Different NamesChemical Name• tetrachlorothaloisonitrileCommon Name• chlorothalonilTrade Name(s)• Daconil, Chlorstar, Concorde, Echo, Manicure, etc.
    31. 31. Turfgrass Fungicides: 15 Chemical Classes • Aromatic hydrocarbon • Phenylamide • Benzimidazole • Phenylpyrolle • Carbamate • Phosphonate • Carboxamide • Polyoxin • Dicarboximide • Pyridine • Dithiocarbamate • QoI • DMI • QiI • Nitrile
    32. 32. FRAC codes are displayed prominently on new fungicide labels
    33. 33. Pre-mix products contain more than one chemical class.
    34. 34. What you need to knowabout fungicidesTopical Mode of Action• how does the fungicide move on/in the plant after application?Biochemical Mode of Action• what is the risk for fungicide resistance?• single-site or multi-site inhibitor
    35. 35. Topical Mode ofActionHow the fungicide moves on/inplant after it is applied• contact• localized penetrant• systemic • acropetal penetrant • true systemic
    36. 36. Topical Mode ofActionHow the fungicide moves on/inplant after it is applied• contact stays on leaf surface• localized penetrant• systemic • acropetal penetrant • true systemic
    37. 37. Topical Mode ofActionHow the fungicide moves on/inplant after it is applied• contact• localized penetrant absorbed into leaf• systemic • acropetal penetrant • true systemic
    38. 38. Topical Mode ofActionHow the fungicide moves on/inplant after it is applied• contact• localized penetrant• systemic absorbed and • acropetal penetrant • true systemic
    39. 39. Topical Mode ofActionHow the fungicide moves on/inplant after it is applied• contact• localized penetrant• systemic • acropetal penetrant moves upward • true systemic
    40. 40. Topical Mode ofActionHow the fungicide moves on/inplant after it is applied• contact• localized penetrant• systemic • acropetal penetrant • true systemic moves up and down
    41. 41. Topical Mode ofActionHow the fungicide moves on/inplant after it is applied• contact• localized penetrant• systemic • acropetal penetrant • true systemic
    42. 42. Topical mode of action determines how a fungicide moves on/in the plantafter application.
    43. 43. Why is topical mode of action important?• determines length of residual control• contacts and localized penetrants less effective for curative applications• acropetal penetrants and true systemics best for control of root diseases• when tank mixing to improve disease control, mixture components should have different topical modes of action
    44. 44. Biochemical Mode ofActionSingle-Site Inhibitors• inhibit one biochemical process in the pathogen• high risk for fungicide resistanceMulti-Site Inhibitors• inhibit more that one (2-1000) processes in the pathogen• low or moderate resistance risk
    45. 45. Do they work as well as theGeneric Fungicides ‘brand name’ products?
    46. 46. Many fungicides are now post-patent• chlorothalonil • phosphorous acid• ethazole • propamocarb• fosetyl-Al • propiconazole• iprodione • thiophanate-methyl• mancozeb • triticonazole• mefanoxam • vinclozolin• myclobutanil
    47. 47. Daconil, Chlorstar, Concord, Echo....What’s the difference?What is different? What isn’t different?• formulation • active ingredient• packaging• customer service• price
    48. 48. Chlorothalonil formulations vary in their effectiveness 200 Dollar spot incidence (spots/plot) 150 100 50 0 x F F tik T 0 ed e 72 D D SS ltr rs at e ho ho e U re rd e th rd Ec nt il co Ec ea on co U on W ac on C il D C on ac D**All products applied at 2.7 oz a.i. per 1000 ft2; data collected 14 days after one applicationData provided by B.B. Clarke, Rutgers University
    49. 49. Many generic products are equally effective Banner Maxx (1 fl oz) Propiconazole Pro (1 fl oz) 150 UntreatedDollar Spot Incidence (spots/ 120 90 plot) 60 30 0 5/6 5/22 5/27 6/3 6/12 6/18 6/25 7/1 7/8 7/16
    50. 50. Products may differ in formulation type Active Ingredient ME EC Subdue Maxx, mefanoxam Mefanoxam Fenox Banner Maxx, propiconazole Propiconazole Pro, Spectator Savvi
    51. 51. Products may also differ in a.i. content thiophanate- Product chlorothalonil methyl Spectro 72% 18% SysTec 50% 17%
    52. 52. Products may also differ in a.i. content 9 Turfgrass Quality (0 to 9) 6 3 0 Spectro (2 oz) Spectro (4 oz) Consyst (2 oz) Consyst (4 oz) UntreatedTreatments applied every 14 days from 17 Apr to 26 Jun
    53. 53. What are you mixingwith your fungicides?• other fungicides/herbicides/ insecticides• fertilizers• growth regulators• biostimulants• surfactants/wetting agents
    54. 54. Surfactants can improve disease control or extend application intervals. 39
    55. 55. They can just as easily REDUCE performance.... a Fairy Ring Severity (0 to 9) ab b b b b
    56. 56. ...or increase the risk of phytotoxicity 4 Bayleton 4SC (2 oz/1000 sq ft) Triton 70WG (0.25 oz/1000 sq ft) Untreated 3 Phytotoxicity (0-9) a 2 1 b bc bc c c 0 + Revolution - Revolution
    57. 57. Jar Test for PhysicalCompatibility• 1 quart of water• liquid products • 1 fl oz = 0.75 teaspoon• dry products • 1 oz = 3.5 grams• shake for 15 seconds• allow to stand for 15 minutes
    58. 58. Why are you tank-mixing fungicides?
    59. 59. Why are you tank-mixing fungicides?Increase control spectrum • more common as fungicides become more specific • most pre-mix products fall into this category
    60. 60. Why are you tank-mixing fungicides?Increase control spectrum • more common as fungicides become more specific • most pre-mix products fall into this categoryImprove disease control • for difficult-to-control diseases
    61. 61. Why are you tank-mixing fungicides?Increase control spectrum • more common as fungicides become more specific • most pre-mix products fall into this categoryImprove disease control • for difficult-to-control diseasesEnhance curative control • contact + acropetal penetrant is best
    62. 62. Why are you tank-mixing fungicides?Increase control spectrum • more common as fungicides become more specific • most pre-mix products fall into this categoryImprove disease control • for difficult-to-control diseasesEnhance curative control • contact + acropetal penetrant is bestPrevent fungicide resistance • mix multiple chemical classes that have activity against the disease
    63. 63. Pre-mix products provide increased control spectrum Bayleton anthracnose Tartan anthracnose brown patch anthracnose brown patch leaf spot brown patch copper spot gray leaf spot dollar spot dollar spot pink patch gray leaf spot fairy ring pink snow mold fairy ring (soon) gray leaf spot rapid blight leaf spot large patch red thread pink patch pink snow mold rust pink snow mold powdery mildew summer patch red thread rusts rust southern blight southern blight stripe smut stripe smut summer patch summer patch take-all patch Compass
    64. 64. Tank-mixtures may improve control of some diseases Untreated Disarm (0.36 fl oz) Insignia (0.9 oz) Heritage (0.2 oz)Daconil Ultrex (3.2 oz) Signature (4 oz) Daconil + Signature 0 7.5 15 22.5 30 Anthracnose Incidence (%)
    65. 65. Curative control of brown patch in creeping bentgrass Heritage (0.4 oz) Daconil (3.2 oz) Heritage + Dac (0.4 + 3.2 oz) Untreated 70 60Brown patch Incidence (%) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 Days after application
    66. 66. Foliar DiseasesSchedule applications based onlow night temperature• dollar spot >50ºF• brown patch >60ºF• Pythium blight >65ºF
    67. 67. Root DiseasesSchedule applications based onaverage daily soil temperature• summer patch >65ºF• take-all patch - 40 to 60ºF• spring dead spot - 60 to 80ºF• large patch - 40 to 70ºF• fairy ring - 55 to 65ºF
    68. 68. Selecting an Application Rate
    69. 69. Selecting an Application RatePreventative Applications • before fungal infections occur • use low rate on short intervals or high rate at long intervals • all topical modes of action are effective
    70. 70. Selecting an Application RatePreventative Applications • before fungal infections occur • use low rate on short intervals or high rate at long intervals • all topical modes of action are effectiveCurative Applications • after fungal infections occur • use high rates at short intervals • acropetal penetrants are best • tank-mix with a contact fungicide is often beneficial
    71. 71. Proper placement is crucial Where is the pathogen
    72. 72. apply in 1 to 2 gallons per 1000 ft2 Proper placement is crucial Where is the pathogen
    73. 73. apply in 1 to 2 gallons per 1000 ft2 apply in 2 to 3 gallons per 1000 ft2 Proper placement is crucial Where is the pathogen
    74. 74. apply in 1 to 2 gallons per 1000 ft2 apply in 2 to 3 gallons per 1000 ft2 apply in 5 gallons per 1000 ft2 OR water-in with 1/8” of irrigation Proper placement is crucial Where is the pathogen
    75. 75. When to irrigate?• How quickly will the spray dry on the leaves?• How quickly is the fungicide absorbed?• How important are root diseases as compared to foliar and crown diseases?
    76. 76. take-all patch fairy ringPost-application irrigation is essential for control of root diseases likesummer patch, take-all patch, and fairy ring.
    77. 77. Nozzle Type Determines Fungicide Performance Flat Fan Nozzle Raindrop NozzleImages from Couch, 1985
    78. 78. Raindrop Nozzle Flat Fan Nozzle Diquat applied @ 1 oz per 1000 ft2 Which nozzle will provide theUniform coverage is essential best disease control?
    79. 79. Images courtesy Mike Agnew, Syngenta Professional Products XR Flat Fan Air-induction Flat Fan TurfJet Flat Fan Fine to medium Coarse to very coarse Extremely coarse droplets droplets dropletsFlat fan nozzles are no longer It’s all about droplet size! created equal
    80. 80. Images courtesy Mike Agnew, Syngenta Professional Products XR Flat Fan TurfJet Flat Fan Fine to medium Extremely coarse droplets dropletsMedium to coarse droplets provide the best control of foliar diseases.
    81. 81. Formulations respond differently to water volume! 0.5 gal Daconil Ultrex 1 gal 2 gal Concorde DF Echo 90DF Daconil Wstik Concorde SST Echo 720 0 2 4 6 8 Dollar Spot Incidence (spots/plot)All products applied to deliver 2.7 oz a.i. per 1000 sq ft on 14 day intervalsData collected 15 Aug 2002Wong et al., Rutgers University
    82. 82. Water volume is most important for root and crown diseases! 35 AI (1 gal) TT (1 gal) 30 Anthracnose Incidence (%) XR (1 gal) 25 AI (2 gal) TT (2 gal) 20 XR (2 gal) Untreated 15 10 5 0 July 20 August 3Medallion applied at 0.25 oz/1000 ft2Courtesy M.A. Fidanza, Penn State University
    83. 83. Dew removal improves foliar disease control AM application AM application dew not removed dew removedDaconil Ultrex applied at 1.8 oz/1000 ft2Courtesy P.H. Dernoeden, University of Maryland

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