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Fungi, Nematodes, and Bacteria: Does Bentgrass Stand a Chance?

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Georgia Golf Course Superintendents Association …

Georgia Golf Course Superintendents Association
Annual Bentgrass Forum
August 29, 2011

Published in: Education, Technology

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  • Transcript

    • 1. Fungi, Bacteria and NematodesDoes Bentgrass Stand a Chance?Lane TredwayAssociate Professor and Extension SpecialistDepartment of Plant PathologyNorth Carolina State University
    • 2. Is bentgrass an endageredspecies in the Southeast?
    • 3. Is it getting hotter? 1980s 1990s 2000s 90 Mean High Temperature (F) 80 70 60 50 40 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Raleigh/Durham International Airport
    • 4. Heat imposed severe stress on creeping bentgrassgreens in 2010.... 15 departure from normal HIGH temperature departure from normal LOW temperature 10 Departure from Normal (F) 5 0 -5 -10 -15 May June July August Sept Oct
    • 5. ...and again in 2011. 15 departure from normal HIGH temperature departure from normal LOW temperature 10 Departure from Normal (F) 5 0 -5 -10 -15 May June July August
    • 6. Was 2010 Wet or Dry? Both! 7 Cumulative Rainfall (in.) 5.25 3.5 1.75 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov
    • 7. Rainfall was more consistent over 2011 2 Cumulative Rainfall (in.) 1.5 1 0.5 0 May June July Aug Sept
    • 8. Everyone is feeling the economic downturn. Do you have more or less discretionary income today?
    • 9. Save the bentgrass!
    • 10. We’re doing our part at NC State.
    • 11. Key Survival Practices for Creeping Bentgrassin Subtropical Environments What does grass need to be healthy? light air food water
    • 12. What is the limiting factor to turf health?
    • 13. Fans are critical where air movement is restricted.
    • 14. Fans do not correctfor shade and treeroot competition
    • 15. Pythium root rot was the most common and severecreeping bentgrass disease in 2010 and 2011.
    • 16. Pythium root and crown rot• putting green disease• many Pythium species (20+) can cause root and crown rot• induced by wet soil conditions• annual bluegrass and creeping bentgrass most susceptible• bermudagrass and seashore paspalum can also be affected
    • 17. Pythium root rot often appears inirregular patterns
    • 18. Symptoms can be ‘patchy’ duringperiods of very wet weather
    • 19. Spread in drainage patterns iscommon.
    • 20. Photo by Bruce Martin
    • 21. A lab diagnosis is necessary to confirm Pythium root rot.
    • 22. Pythium root rot isinduced by wet soils
    • 23. Even new, well-drained greens canbe affected during wet weather
    • 24. Layeringcan triggerroot rotproblems
    • 25. Pythium Root Rot: Chemical ControlFew fungicides are specifically labeled for Pythium root rot, and littleis known about their relative efficacy. FRAC Code Chemical Class Common Names Products 11 QoI azoxystrobin, fluoxastrobin Heritage, Disarm aromatic 14 ethazole Terrazole hydrocarbons 21 QiI cyazofamid Segway 28 carbamates propamocarb Banol, Stellar 33 phosphonates fosetyl-Al, phosphorous acid Signature, Alude, Resyst 43 benzamides fluopicolide Stellar
    • 26. Disease Management Utility on TurfFiles turfdiseasemanagement.ncsu.edu
    • 27. Disease Management Utility on TurfFiles turfdiseasemanagement.ncsu.edu
    • 28. Pythium Root Rot: Chemical Control
    • 29. Pythium Root Rot: Chemical Control Preventative
    • 30. Pythium Root Rot: Chemical Control Preventative • applications of cyazofamid, ethazole, mefanoxam, or propamocarb during periods of wet weather
    • 31. Pythium Root Rot: Chemical Control Preventative • applications of cyazofamid, ethazole, mefanoxam, or propamocarb during periods of wet weather • watered-in with 1/8” of irrigation for best results
    • 32. Pythium Root Rot: Chemical Control Preventative • applications of cyazofamid, ethazole, mefanoxam, or propamocarb during periods of wet weather • watered-in with 1/8” of irrigation for best results Curative
    • 33. Pythium Root Rot: Chemical Control Preventative • applications of cyazofamid, ethazole, mefanoxam, or propamocarb during periods of wet weather • watered-in with 1/8” of irrigation for best results Curative • ethazole (Koban, Terrazole), followed 2 to 3 days later by a systemic product (cyazofamid, mefanoxam, propamocarb)
    • 34. Pythium Root Rot: Chemical Control Preventative • applications of cyazofamid, ethazole, mefanoxam, or propamocarb during periods of wet weather • watered-in with 1/8” of irrigation for best results Curative • ethazole (Koban, Terrazole), followed 2 to 3 days later by a systemic product (cyazofamid, mefanoxam, propamocarb) • watered-in with 1/8” of irrigation for best results
    • 35. Pythium root rot is driven by soil moisture.
    • 36. “It can’t be a disease because I’m on Program 13!”
    • 37. Spray programs are not uncommon in agriculture.flickr:TaminaMiller
    • 38. Every golf course is different.Climate, microclimate,expectations, andmanagement styles vary.
    • 39. Art and Science
    • 40. Where’s the art in this?
    • 41. Program ’11 How to develop and implement a fungicide program.
    • 42. Program ’11 How to develop and implement a fungicide program. 1. develop list of diseases based on location, cultivar, soil type, and history
    • 43. Program ’11 How to develop and implement a fungicide program. 1. develop list of diseases based on location, cultivar, soil type, and history 2. use historical weather data to determine when each disease is ‘normally’ active
    • 44. Program ’11 How to develop and implement a fungicide program. 1. develop list of diseases based on location, cultivar, soil type, and history 2. use historical weather data to determine when each disease is ‘normally’ active 3. select product(s) that will control the disease(s) that are expected to be active each week
    • 45. Program ’11 How to develop and implement a fungicide program. 1. develop list of diseases based on location, cultivar, soil type, and history 2. use historical weather data to determine when each disease is ‘normally’ active 3. select product(s) that will control the disease(s) that are expected to be active each week 4. select rates, intervals, and application method
    • 46. Program ’11 How to develop and implement a fungicide program. 1. develop list of diseases based on location, cultivar, soil type, and history 2. use historical weather data to determine when each disease is ‘normally’ active 3. select product(s) that will control the disease(s) that are expected to be active each week 4. select rates, intervals, and application method 5. adjust as needed based on actual weather conditions
    • 47. PRD Segway Honor Signature + Banolfairy ring Bayleton Torquedollar spot Honor Torque 26GT Disarm C Honoralgae Daconil Ult Disarm C Forebrown patch 26GT Disarm C HonorPRR Segway Signature + Banol Terrazole Subdue Segway Bayleton Honor Torque Signature 26GT Terrazole Disarm C Subdue Honor 0.9 fl oz 1 fl oz 1.1 oz 0.6 fl oz 4 oz 4 fl oz 4 fl oz 5 fl oz 1 fl oz 1.1 fl oz water-in water-in water-in water-in foliar foliar water-in foliar water-in foliar Banol Daconil Ult Fore 2 fl oz 3.2 fl oz 6 oz foliar foliar foliar
    • 48. Program ’11: How to follow along... feeds.feedburner.com/turfpathology
    • 49. Program ’11: How to follow along... turfpathology.org feeds.feedburner.com/turfpathology
    • 50. Program ’11: How to follow along... turfpathology.org facebook.com/turfpathology feeds.feedburner.com/turfpathology
    • 51. Program ’11: How to follow along... turfpathology.org facebook.com/turfpathology twitter.com/ncturfpathology feeds.feedburner.com/turfpathology
    • 52. Bacterial Fright
    • 53. History of Bacterial Wilt
    • 54. History of Bacterial Wilt• severe epidemic in Midwestern US on ‘Toronto’ creeping bentgrass in 1970’s caused by Xanthomonas transluscens
    • 55. History of Bacterial Wilt• severe epidemic in Midwestern US on ‘Toronto’ creeping bentgrass in 1970’s caused by Xanthomonas transluscens• X. transluscens continues to be an occasional problem on Poa annua greens in the northern US
    • 56. History of Bacterial Wilt• severe epidemic in Midwestern US on ‘Toronto’ creeping bentgrass in 1970’s caused by Xanthomonas transluscens• X. transluscens continues to be an occasional problem on Poa annua greens in the northern US• efforts to develop this into a bioherbicide failed due to lack of efficacy in absence of severe stress
    • 57. History of Bacterial Wilt• severe epidemic in Midwestern US on ‘Toronto’ creeping bentgrass in 1970’s caused by Xanthomonas transluscens• X. transluscens continues to be an occasional problem on Poa annua greens in the northern US• efforts to develop this into a bioherbicide failed due to lack of efficacy in absence of severe stress• 2009 - report of a bacterial disease of creeping bentgrass caused by Acidovorax spp. in Charlotte, NC
    • 58. Bacterial Fright Timeline
    • 59. Bacterial Fright TimelineJune 2009 - samples from Quail Hollow Country Club submitted toMichigan State University for disease diagnosis
    • 60. Bacterial Fright TimelineJune 2009 - samples from Quail Hollow Country Club submitted toMichigan State University for disease diagnosisOctober 1, 2009 - Michigan State reported to Quail Hollow that theproblem was a bacterial disease caused by a species of Acidovorax
    • 61. Bacterial Fright TimelineJune 2009 - samples from Quail Hollow Country Club submitted toMichigan State University for disease diagnosisOctober 1, 2009 - Michigan State reported to Quail Hollow that theproblem was a bacterial disease caused by a species of AcidovoraxOctober 2, 2009 - attempted to contact Dr. Vargas for information
    • 62. Bacterial Fright TimelineJune 2009 - samples from Quail Hollow Country Club submitted toMichigan State University for disease diagnosisOctober 1, 2009 - Michigan State reported to Quail Hollow that theproblem was a bacterial disease caused by a species of AcidovoraxOctober 2, 2009 - attempted to contact Dr. Vargas for informationMay 19, 2010 - received response from Paul Giordano:
    • 63. Communication from MSU on May 19, 2010
    • 64. Communication from MSU on May 19, 2010....we believe the bacterium is the causal organism, or at least partiallyresponsible for the issue....
    • 65. Communication from MSU on May 19, 2010....we believe the bacterium is the causal organism, or at least partiallyresponsible for the issue........we are still in the beginning stages of investigating this problem, andwould like to have sound scientific evidence supporting ourconclusions before giving any concrete answers....
    • 66. Communication from MSU on May 19, 2010....we believe the bacterium is the causal organism, or at least partiallyresponsible for the issue........we are still in the beginning stages of investigating this problem, andwould like to have sound scientific evidence supporting ourconclusions before giving any concrete answers........we would like to initiate some collaborative research with your labaimed at positive identification of the problem....
    • 67. Plant Disease Note,Published July 2009• ...a golf course putting green sample...• ...symptoms of general wilt, decline, and characteristic necrosis...• ...bacterial streaming was present in all of the infected tissue...• ...3 different bacteria were isolated...• ...one resulted in slight browning of leaf tips just 2 days after inoculation...
    • 68. Plant Disease Note,Published July 2009• ...when leaf tips of the inoculated plants were cut, bacterial streaming was observed...• ...DNA sequencing results indicated that the causal agent was a member of the Acidovorax genus...• ...this is the first report of a bacterial disease affecting creeping bentgrass caused by Acidovorax spp. in the US.
    • 69. Photo by Paul Giordano, Michigan State University
    • 70. GCM, November 2006
    • 71. How most labs are diagnosing ‘bacterial wilt’.
    • 72. The diagnosticlab saw some bacteria in our samples.
    • 73. Which bacteriadid they see? Is it a pathogen? The diagnostic lab saw some bacteria in our samples.
    • 74. Which bacteria did they see? Is it a pathogen? The diagnostic lab saw some bacteria They didn’t say, but in our samples.clearly we have a huge bacteria problem here.
    • 75. Which one is apathogen?
    • 76. 2010Acidovorax sp.Xanthomonas translucensNo suspected pathogens
    • 77. 2011Acidovorax sp.Xanthomonas translucensBoth Acidovorax andXanthomonasNo suspected pathogens
    • 78. Management of Bacterial Diseases in Turf
    • 79. Management of Bacterial Diseases in TurfALLEVIATE STRESS!
    • 80. Management of Bacterial Diseases in TurfALLEVIATE STRESS! • raise mowing heights • reduce mowing frequency • mow in evening or when turf is dry • avoid abrasive practices such as aerification or topdressing • LIGHT and FREQUENT applications of complete foliar fertilizers • irrigate in morning to prepare for heat of day, ensure that foliage dries in between syringe cycles
    • 81. What are the chemical control options?
    • 82. What are the chemical control options?• streptomycin sulfate (Agrimycin 17, FireWall)
    • 83. What are the chemical control options?• streptomycin sulfate (Agrimycin 17, FireWall)• oxytetracycline (Mycoshield, FireLine)
    • 84. What are the chemical control options?• streptomycin sulfate (Agrimycin 17, FireWall)• oxytetracycline (Mycoshield, FireLine)• hydrogen dioxide (Zerotol, Redox, etc)
    • 85. What are the chemical control options?• streptomycin sulfate (Agrimycin 17, FireWall)• oxytetracycline (Mycoshield, FireLine)• hydrogen dioxide (Zerotol, Redox, etc)• n-Alkyl ammonium chloride (Consan 20, Greenshield, SA-20)
    • 86. What are the chemical control options?• streptomycin sulfate (Agrimycin 17, FireWall)• oxytetracycline (Mycoshield, FireLine)• hydrogen dioxide (Zerotol, Redox, etc)• n-Alkyl ammonium chloride (Consan 20, Greenshield, SA-20)• copper (Junction, Camelot, Copper-Count-N)
    • 87. What are the chemical control options?• streptomycin sulfate (Agrimycin 17, FireWall)• oxytetracycline (Mycoshield, FireLine)• hydrogen dioxide (Zerotol, Redox, etc)• n-Alkyl ammonium chloride (Consan 20, Greenshield, SA-20)• copper (Junction, Camelot, Copper-Count-N)• fosetyl-Al (Signature, Autograph, Fosetyl-Al, Prodigy)
    • 88. What are the chemical control options?• streptomycin sulfate (Agrimycin 17, FireWall)• oxytetracycline (Mycoshield, FireLine)• hydrogen dioxide (Zerotol, Redox, etc)• n-Alkyl ammonium chloride (Consan 20, Greenshield, SA-20)• copper (Junction, Camelot, Copper-Count-N)• fosetyl-Al (Signature, Autograph, Fosetyl-Al, Prodigy)• acibenzolar (component of Daconil Action)
    • 89. What are the chemical control options?• streptomycin sulfate (Agrimycin 17, FireWall)• oxytetracycline (Mycoshield, FireLine)• hydrogen dioxide (Zerotol, Redox, etc)• n-Alkyl ammonium chloride (Consan 20, Greenshield, SA-20)• copper (Junction, Camelot, Copper-Count-N)• fosetyl-Al (Signature, Autograph, Fosetyl-Al, Prodigy)• acibenzolar (component of Daconil Action)• fluazinam (experimental)
    • 90. L-93, Raleigh NC Signature (8 oz) Dac Action (3.6 oz) Mycoshield (3.7 oz) Clorox (3 fl oz)Hydrogen Peroxide (3 fl oz) Junction (4 oz) Camelot (3 fl oz) Untreated 0 5 10 15 20 Disease Incidence (%) Data collected June 23, 2011
    • 91. G-2, Charlotte NC Signature (8 oz) Dac Action (3.6 oz) Mycoshield (3.7 oz)Ningnanamycin (1 oz) Untreated 0 3 6 9 Disease Severity (0 to 9) June 13 June 20 June 27 July 5
    • 92. G-2, Charlotte NC Mycoshield (10 lbs/A) Agrimycin (10 lbs/A) Kasumin (1.5 fl oz/M) Untreated 6 a abDisease Severity (0 to 9) 4.5 a ab ab 3 ab b b 1.5 a a a a 0 June 27 July 5 July 18 Treatments applied June 27, July 5, and July 12
    • 93. Dominant, Raleigh NC FireLine (10 lbs/A) FireWall (10 lbs/A)Dac Action (3.6 oz) Zerotol (6 oz) SA-20 (1.6 oz) Junction (3 oz) Camelot (3 oz)Cu-Count-N (16 oz) Signature (8 oz) Signature (4 oz) Untreated 0 3 6 9 Data collected July 8
    • 94. Dominant, Raleigh NC FireLine (10 lbs/A) FireWall (10 lbs/A)Dac Action (3.6 oz) Zerotol (6 oz) SA-20 (1.6 oz) Junction (3 oz) Camelot (3 oz)Cu-Count-N (16 oz) Signature (8 oz) Signature (4 oz) Untreated 0 3 6 9 Data collected July 20
    • 95. Dominant, Raleigh NC FireLine (10 lbs/A) FireWall (10 lbs/A)Dac Action (3.6 oz) Zerotol (6 oz) SA-20 (1.6 oz) Junction (3 oz) Camelot (3 oz)Cu-Count-N (16 oz) Signature (8 oz) Signature (4 oz) Untreated 0 3 6 9 Data collected August 8
    • 96. turfdiseases.org
    • 97. Program ’11: How to follow along... feeds.feedburner.com/turfpathology
    • 98. Program ’11: How to follow along... turfpathology.org feeds.feedburner.com/turfpathology
    • 99. Program ’11: How to follow along... turfpathology.org facebook.com/turfpathology feeds.feedburner.com/turfpathology
    • 100. Program ’11: How to follow along... turfpathology.org facebook.com/turfpathology twitter.com/ncturfpathology feeds.feedburner.com/turfpathology