SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute



Errata!
     “Estimation of Software” has a bug!
         “The mu...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute



Lecture on February 16th
     Student presentations!
     Prepare...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute




   T-76.5612 Software Project Management

           5: Quality in...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute



                                     A Plan




 HELSINKI UNIVERSIT...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute



                             The Reality




 HELSINKI UNIVERSITY O...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute


What quality practices can do for my
project?
  Provide headlights ...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute



Contents
     Setting quality goals
     From goals to quality pr...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute




                           Quality Goals




 HELSINKI UNIVERSITY ...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute




       Strive for good quality
  Bad quality leads to rework,
   h...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute




What is quality (in software)?




 HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOL...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute

ISO 9126 Quality attributes
  Functionality      Efficiency
       ...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute


                                     QUALITY

  PRODUCT             ...
SoberIT
     Software Business and Engineering Institute


                                          QUALITY

       PRODU...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute




                       Quality goals




 HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF T...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute



Setting the target - Quality goals
  Generic quality characteristi...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute



From a general to a specific quality goal: An Example

     Adapta...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute



Quality goals
     Quality goals point out the important quality c...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute



Focusing the QA efforts – Quality Risks
     Risk – a potential th...
SoberIT
  Software Business and Engineering Institute


What we should test vs. what we could test?




                  ...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute



Example – Risk analysis matrix
Characteristic Impact               ...
SoberIT
      Software Business and Engineering Institute



      Example – Statistical Risk Analysis Matrix
            ...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute



Prioritising risks (I x P = E)
  I = Impact, P = Probability, E = ...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute



Prioritising risks
     Goal is to prioritize
           Which ri...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute




               Quality Practices




 HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHN...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute



Quality practices
     Many practices strive for better quality
  ...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute



Quality practices
     Plan which practices are used to achieve an...
SoberIT
 Software Business and Engineering Institute

Mapping the goals and practices
                                  Qu...
SoberIT
 Software Business and Engineering Institute

Mapping the goals and practices
                                    ...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute


How to measure the quality goals
  Some quality characteristics can...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute


Evaluating and tracking quality - Hard metrics
     Hard metrics ar...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute


Evaluating and tracking quality - Subjective evaluation

     Subje...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute


Evaluating and tracking quality - Indirect metrics
     Define how ...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute



Goal – Question – Metric (GQM)
     Goals define the purpose and o...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute




                        Project Planning




 HELSINKI UNIVERSITY ...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute


Planning the project with quality goals and practices

     Describ...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute



Testing and project planning
  Test releases
           Make clea...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute



Iterative Testing and Deployment
            Iteration             ...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute




        Project Tracking and Reporting




 HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute



Making quality visible in project tracking
     Keep quality goals...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute



Making quality visible in project tracking
     Find out the reaso...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute



Test reporting in project management
     As a project manager you...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute
Reporting with weak metrics:
Testing Dashboard




                   ...
SoberIT
     Software Business and Engineering Institute



     Test reporting for steering group
          It depends! ...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute



    Quality information                             Managing projec...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute



Quality Assurance Through Time Horizons
                           ...
SoberIT
  Software Business and Engineering Institute


 Quality information and time horizons
 Release time horizon

    ...
SoberIT
  Software Business and Engineering Institute


  Quality information and time horizons
  Iteration time horizon

...
SoberIT
  Software Business and Engineering Institute


  Quality information and time horizons
  Heartbeat time horizon

...
SoberIT
  Software Business and Engineering Institute



  Quality information and time horizons
              i
Release p...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute


Gather information on short time
horizons
     Progress against ite...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute



Who is responsible for quality?
  Make sure that quality is everyb...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute



Summary
  Define concrete and meaningful quality goals
  Identify...
SoberIT
Software Business and Engineering Institute




                          Thank you.

                          Qu...
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5 Quality

  1. 1. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Errata!   “Estimation of Software” has a bug!   “The multiplier for high complexity and external output type is higher than the multiplier for high complexity and external input type.”   Instead, you should look up the values from the table for external inquiry type, as with other user types   The reason:   Some descriptions of Albrecht function point method have instructed to do as described in the material, but this suggestion has been changed later. HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
  2. 2. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Lecture on February 16th   Student presentations!   Prepare a presentation of 15-20 minutes on topic of your interest (related to software project management), and get 5 lecture summary points   And/or   Attend the session, participate in discussions and share your own experiences, and earn max 5 lecture summary points by writing a summary of the presentations & discussion   If you want to give a presentation, please send email to tuomas.niinimaki@tkk.fi HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
  3. 3. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute T-76.5612 Software Project Management 5: Quality in Software Project Management Tuomas Niinimäki (many slides by Juha Itkonen & Mika Mäntylä) Helsinki University of Technology HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
  4. 4. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute A Plan HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 4
  5. 5. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute The Reality HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 5
  6. 6. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute What quality practices can do for my project?   Provide headlights (Information on quality)   Where are we?   … and what lies ahead?   Enable changing our plan   We can get there, but later than planned   We can get almost there and stick to our schedule   But if we run full steam ahead according to our plan we will definitely crash HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 6
  7. 7. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Contents   Setting quality goals   From goals to quality practices   Quality information in project planning and tracking HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 7
  8. 8. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Quality Goals HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 8
  9. 9. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Strive for good quality Bad quality leads to rework, higher costs, delays, and problems in operation HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 9
  10. 10. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute What is quality (in software)? HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
  11. 11. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute ISO 9126 Quality attributes   Functionality   Efficiency   Suitability   Time behavior   Accurateness   Resource behavior   Interoperability   Maintainability   Security   Analyzability   Reliability   Changeability   Maturity   Stability   Fault tolerance   Testability   Recoverability   Portability   Usability   Adaptability   Understandability   Installability   Learnability   Conformance   Operability   Replaceability   Attractiveness + suggested metrics for each quality attribute HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 11
  12. 12. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute QUALITY PRODUCT PEOPLE PROCESS HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
  13. 13. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute QUALITY PRODUCT PEOPLE PROCESS   Product is error-free   The expectations of   Control and the customer or user management   Product meets the have been met specifications   Expectations,   Someone gets value estimates, forecasts   Product has certain from the result measurable attribute   What is value?   Reproducibility Differs depending   e.g. durability, on who you ask: weight, SMS support developer, user, tech. support   Improvement   Learning from mistakes and   Sustainability successes   Conformity / commitment HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
  14. 14. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Quality goals HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
  15. 15. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Setting the target - Quality goals   Generic quality characteristics are not enough   Customer’s requirements and needs   Product characteristics   Application domain   Development technologies and environment   Project characteristics   Specific quality goals are needed   Specific goals for this project   Unambiguous   Connected to a concrete project, product, and problems we need to define precisely what qualities we require of a system HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 15
  16. 16. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute From a general to a specific quality goal: An Example   Adaptability   Attributes of software that bear on the opportunity for its adaptation to different specified environments without applying other actions or means than those provided for this purpose for the software considered.   Adaptability   The MobWebClient software must work with all advertised compatible browser and e-mail environments, with or without java, without specific configuration. HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 16
  17. 17. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Quality goals   Quality goals point out the important quality characteristics for   the project,   the product, and   the whole organization   Quality goals   show where to focus effort and resources   help selecting suitable practices and methods   steer every activity of the project into the right direction   Quality goals can reflect different qualities for different parts of the system HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 17
  18. 18. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Focusing the QA efforts – Quality Risks   Risk – a potential threat to projects objectives   With uncertain probability   Quality goals tell us what are the important qualities to achieve in this project   Quality risk analysis focuses our QA efforts to the most important things   E.g. if functional correctness is one of our quality goals: What are the most important functions that we should test thoroughly vs. all the functions we could test? HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 18
  19. 19. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute What we should test vs. what we could test? Reduced value due to defects Cost of finding defects HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
  20. 20. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Example – Risk analysis matrix Characteristic Impact Probability Exposure Usability 3 4 12 Functional 2 2 4 correctness Conformance 1 3 3 to standard X HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
  21. 21. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Example – Statistical Risk Analysis Matrix Impact * Probability = Re New Design Com- Weigh. Risk Dev Cust. Avg Func. Qual. Size plexity Sum Exposure Weight 5 5 1 3 Interest Calculation 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 37 111 Close Account 1 3 2 2 2 2 3 31 62 Create 2 1 1,5 3 3 2 3 41 61,5 Account The numbers and calculations are not important – Idea is to get the features into priority order Modified slide, originally from Ståle Amland HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 21
  22. 22. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Prioritising risks (I x P = E)   I = Impact, P = Probability, E = Exposure   What does the exposure number mean?   Scale of a risk   Used to rank risks   high I x low P = low I x high P   Risks with very severe impacts can have average exposure   Usually impact is easier to estimate than probability   Can lead to low exposures for high impact risks HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 22
  23. 23. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Prioritising risks   Goal is to prioritize   Which risks deserve most attention   The discussion about the severities and probabilities is probably more valuable than the exact ranking   In QA, prioritization means distribution of efforts, not order of actions   Less risky application areas cannot be ignored   Requirement priority is not test priority HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
  24. 24. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Quality Practices HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 24
  25. 25. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Quality practices   Many practices strive for better quality   Testing   Reviews, inspections   Conventions, guidelines   Documenting   Design and development methods & techniques   Project management practices HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 25
  26. 26. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Quality practices   Plan which practices are used to achieve and measure each of the quality goals   Applying existing practices already in use   Learning best practices from other projects and organizations   Improving and combining existing practices   Inventing new practices   Quality goals give guidance for performing the practices HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
  27. 27. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Mapping the goals and practices Quality goals Quality threat Practices Functional Conformance Usability Performan DB changes One developer correctness to standard X ce break existing has no client sw experience in J2EE Functional testing 3 1 GUI prototyping 2 Code reviews 3 3 = good practice 2 = helps 1 = might help HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 27
  28. 28. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Mapping the goals and practices Quality goals Quality threat Practices Functional Conformance Usability Performan DB changes One developer correctness to standard X ce break existing has no client sw experience in J2EE Functional testing 3 1 GUI prototyping 2 Code reviews 3 1 2 Regression testing client 1 3 sw   Documents how quality goals are to be achieved   Focuses activities into right issues   Reveals and communicates   explicitly identified threats   quality goals with weak practices 28 HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
  29. 29. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute How to measure the quality goals   Some quality characteristics can be measured quantitatively = Hard metrics   e.g. features passing tests, performance   Some can be assessed subjectively = Subjective evaluation   e.g. usability, conformance to a standard   Some cannot be measured at all (in a practical situation) = Indirect metrics   e.g. maintainability, reusability HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 29
  30. 30. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Evaluating and tracking quality - Hard metrics   Hard metrics are concrete and clear   If the goal can be quantified, do so   What measures are used?   Who, how and when?   How the measures are used?   Numbers are easy to present and understand   Easy to track and observe changes and trends   Easy to misinterpret   E.g. what can we infer based on the number of found defects alone?   Historical data helps in detecting trends   Characteristics of defects (severity, technical type) HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 30
  31. 31. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Evaluating and tracking quality - Subjective evaluation   Subjective evaluation as a measure   Define how the goal is assessed   What are the metrics   Who, how and when   How the results are used   Reviews and assessments   Subjective opinion   Qualitative data   E.g., subjective assessment of quality of a video stream   Tracking not as straightforward -> must quantify   E.g., compare to reference video streams of different quality HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 31
  32. 32. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Evaluating and tracking quality - Indirect metrics   Define how to achieve, evaluate and track these goals too!   Indirect assumptions   Maintainability   E.g., following a coding standard leads to better code quality, understandability and source code documentation   Reusability   E.g., writing and executing unit tests for all code leads to better design, robust code, and better maintainability   E.g., product line architecture leads to re-usable software   Hard metrics for following these practices   Maintainability   E.g., coding standards violations found in code reviews   Reusability   E.g., number / amount of unit tests, unit test peer reviews   E.g., amount of project specific glue code HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 32
  33. 33. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Goal – Question – Metric (GQM)   Goals define the purpose and objective for measurement   Purpose   Quality issue   Object   Viewpoint   Questions characterize and refine the measurement goals   The goal can be achieved when answers to the questions are available   Metrics are identified for each question   Metrics provide the answers to the questions HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 33
  34. 34. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Project Planning HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 34
  35. 35. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Planning the project with quality goals and practices   Describe quality goals and major threats   Make sure that each quality goal is meaningful and described in the context of this project   Make sure that all required quality practices are planned   Effort estimates   Schedule   Resourcing   Plan how to track quality practices and measure achieved quality   What measures are used?   Who, how and when?   How the measures are collected and used?   Remember: Quality assurance takes effort and calendar time HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 35
  36. 36. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Testing and project planning   Test releases   Make clear what and when is released for testing   Plan what is the required quality level of test releases – and how to ensure / measure it   Building and delivering the test release takes time   Do not forget that fixing takes time and effort   You don’t know how many bugs will be found   You must plan how many bugs will be found   Allocate time and resources to test, fix and re-test (verify the fixes)   More bugs means more fixing and slower testing   Test schedules are relative   Development will be late   Code will be buggy   Plan how to handle slipping dates and underestimated workload HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 36
  37. 37. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Iterative Testing and Deployment Iteration Heartbeat Testing and deployment iterations Release t Release to Release to testing customer   Testing, stabilizing, and deployment takes time   Testing requires many iterations   Found defects has to be fixed   Fixes has to be re-tested   Fixing causes more defects…   If you do more during development the risk is smaller during testing and deployment   If all testing is left at the end, the testing phase is hard to estimate and plan HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 37   Waterfall process
  38. 38. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Project Tracking and Reporting HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 38
  39. 39. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Making quality visible in project tracking   Keep quality goals visible in project meetings   Track the planned metrics   Publish the metrics   React to deviations   Connect quality metrics in progress tracking   What does it mean to get a task done?   Reviews, unit tests, functional tests, regression tests, demo, … HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 39
  40. 40. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Making quality visible in project tracking   Find out the reasons behind the metrics   small number of found bugs due to ignored testing tasks   large number of found bugs due to changed specifications -> broken test cases Number of defects A B C D Low QA quality High QA quality HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 40
  41. 41. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Test reporting in project management   As a project manager you need test reports   Not as bug descriptions, not as plain numbers of test cases and bugs   Test reports describe what has been tested and assess the current level of achieved quality based on that testing   Test reports should provide information to assess how well the stated goals have been achieved   Important content in test reports   Assessment of the achieved quality   What was tested, how thoroughly, what was coverage   What was found, bugs by severity, issues, metrics   Progress according to the plan HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 41
  42. 42. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Reporting with weak metrics: Testing Dashboard Modified from: Kaner et al. 2002. Lessons Learned in Software testing.   If you cannot have direct quality measures, use indirect   Use of certain quality assurance practices gives indirectly hints of the likely quality of the final system   Qualitative assessment and the reasoning behind is much better than plain numbers HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 42
  43. 43. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Test reporting for steering group   It depends! (Usually higher level of abstraction, focus on specific issues) 35 30 25 Designed 20 Implemented 15 Tested 10 Needs rework 5 Finished 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 35 30 25 20 Remaining 15 10 Planned 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
  44. 44. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Quality information Managing project • Review results • To re-scope an iteration • Test results, bug counts • To focus resources into • Development right areas progress • To make sure • Metrics of achieving good different qualities enough quality (performance, load, …) • To find out we are making the right product we need to forecast the likely quality of the final system when it is under development HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
  45. 45. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Quality Assurance Through Time Horizons Iteration Heartbeat   Heartbeat time horizon Release   Quality practices are part of each development task t   Iteration time horizon   Tasks to assure the quality of an increment   Release time horizon   Tasks to assure the quality of the whole release Blue = QA practices HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 45
  46. 46. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Quality information and time horizons Release time horizon i Release project i i i i i i Time   Not connected to any iterations or milestones – hard to track and manage   Typical approach to manage   Informal reviews   System testing   Acceptance testing   Testing non-functional quality characteristics   Performance   Usability   Load and stress testing   … HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 46
  47. 47. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Quality information and time horizons Iteration time horizon i Release project Iteration i i i i i i i i i i iii Time   Quality assurance goals for each iteration   Activities that provide information by the end of (each) iteration   Not necessary connected to individual development tasks   Information available at the end of each iteration, at latest   Review results   Unit test and integration test results   Function test and system test results   Quality metrics (e.g. performance, bug counts, test reports) HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 47
  48. 48. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Quality information and time horizons Heartbeat time horizon i Release project Iteration i i Heartbeat i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i Time   Quality assurance activities as part of each development task   Information created early and continuously   Development progress, bug counts, performed tests, …   Code review results   Unit tests and results   Automatic builds and smoke tests   Function test and integration test results HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 48
  49. 49. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Quality information and time horizons i Release project i i i i i i Iteration i i i i i i i i i i iii i i Heartbeat i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i Time Heartbeat quality practices Release quality practices •  Information for steering the •  Independent activities iteration •  Tracking and planning iterations •  Tracking progress Iteration quality practices •  Information for steering the current and forthcoming iterations •  Evaluating achieved quality HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 49
  50. 50. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Gather information on short time horizons   Progress against iteration (quality) goals must be tracked in heartbeat rhythm   Plan how you get the quality information before it’s too late   Find actively ways of digging quality information out as early and often as possible   Talk to testers and developers   The best way is to get something completed and tested in short iterations   The risk of poor quality is not delayed to the end of the project   Shorter feedback loop -> easier and faster to fix the problems   Pay attention to heartbeat practices   Assure good enough quality in each iteration   Do not push risks like a growing snowball in front of you HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 50
  51. 51. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Who is responsible for quality?   Make sure that quality is everybody’s responsibility   and it shows in the project plan   It is good to have a project “QA manager” role   Responsibility to actively track quality in the heartbeat rhythm and help project manager to make QA activities to happen   Reports project’s progress from the quality point of view in the project meetings   Tracking quality goals in iteration time horizon   Tries to be less eager to sacrifice quality for new fancy features   Keep separate testers tightly in the project   In the heartbeat rhythm   Project meetings   Reviews   Collaborating with developers HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 51
  52. 52. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Summary   Define concrete and meaningful quality goals   Identify practices and activities that are applied to achieve the goals and track progress   Plan activities and tracking   quality assurance activities in the schedule and effort estimations   how to react to deviations   Remember the different time horizons   When is the information needed in order to be useful?   Plan activities to provide the information promptly   Identify also the major quality threats   and plan how the threats are handled in the project and when   Do not leave big threats to be revealed at the end of the project HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 52
  53. 53. SoberIT Software Business and Engineering Institute Thank you. Questions? Tuomas Niinimäki tuomas.niinimaki@soberit.hut.fi HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
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