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POLLUTION Air, Water and Soil pollution.B.Tungalagtuya. English teacher
What is pollution?Pollution is the contamination of an environment. To cause harm to an are of natural environment. Pollution is caused by man’s impact and growth and his improper disposal of waste materials generated.Industrialisation has had a great impact on the type and volume of pollutants released.Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary economic activity which is a sign of man’s success has added to the effect of pollution
Primary activity: farming, fishing, miningSecondary: manufacturing, constructionTertiary: administrative, retail, transportQuaternary: technology and information services.
Types of pollutionIt is classified into:Land/soil pollutionAir pollutionWater pollution
Land/ soil pollutionLand pollution is the contamination of land spaces or soil. Has commercial, agricultural, industrial, domestic sourcesInstances when this occur are:Agricultural waste such as insecticides and pesticides which are used excessively and leach into the soil. These products not only affect the target organism but others as well.
The soil chemistry is changed and this can affect growth and survival of plants and animals.Nonbiodegradable waste originating from household and industrial products. These stay a very long time in the environment as they either can be broken down or they take very long .e.g. plastics, glass metals
Land pollutionLittering and the development of landfills affect soil chemistry.Bio degradable materials : The materials that are able to break down naturally into harmless simpler forms by actions of microorganisms. E.g. paper, some plastic, textiles.
Chemical and nuclear plantsIndustrial factoriesOil refineriesHuman sewageOil and antifreeze leaking from carsMiningLitteringOvercrowded landfillsDeforestationConstruction debris
Water pollutionContamination of water resources i.e. oceans, lakes, rivers by harmful substances. Also affects drinking waterWater comprises 70% of earth’s surface. Is a very important resource for plants and animalsPoint source derived from discrete location ( pipe or drain) and nonpoint source no single point of origin, contaminants are spread over a larger area. ( leaching of fertilizer)
Sources of waterpollutionNonbiodegradable wasteInsecticides, pesticides leaching into groundwaterOil spillHot water from industriesUntreated waste and nutrient accumulationToxic chemicals
Non-biodegradablewasteCovers surfaces or obstructs current pathways preventing or poisoning organisms.Clogs waterways restricting movement of aquatic organisms
Hot waterDerived from industrial sources where water is used for cooling.Can kill organisms due to high temperatures and also change the abiotic conditions of habitat.Cooling of water before release
Air pollutionSmog, acid rain, CFC’s (chlorofluorocarbons), particulate matter , noxious gases all contribute to air pollution.
Contributors to airpollution:Automobile emissionsTobacco smokeCombustion of coalAcid rainNoise pollution from cars and constructionPower plantsManufacturing buildingsLarge shipsPaint fumesAerosol spraysWildfiresNuclear weapons
What activities have negativeimpacts on the environmentDeforestation: removal or clearance of naturally occurring forests.Overfishing: blast fishing, trawlingCoral reef and mangrove destruction