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When to use a diagram, drawing or cartoon in participatory research? Exploring the ontological consequences of visual meth...
Does a diagram “by any other name smell as sweet”?<br />Placing diagrammatic elicitation in the spectrum of visual and ver...
How it all came about?<br />Umoquit  et al Systematic review on using diagrams in interviews: terminology!<br />Varga-Atki...
Revised presentation outline<br />Part 1 – diagrammatic elicitation<br />The problem of terminology in (visual) research m...
The ‘problem’: what’s in a name?<br />Rose<br />Method name<br />Method<br />Correspondence important!!! <br /><ul><li>Abl...
Able to analyse
Interdisciplinary research
Share research experiences, methods etc.</li></ul>Correspondence (name = signifier) is not important<br />
Terminology mismatch: A<br />‘Participatory diagramming’<br />Post-it notes arranged by groups to make prioritized lists<b...
Terminology mismatch: B<br />‘Graphic elicitation’<br />Interviewees created a diagram to show informal and formal network...
Purpose: multidisciplinary terminology<br />Define what a diagram is<br />Place diagramming in context of elicitation<br /...
What is a diagram?<br />Diagram?<br />
What is a diagram?<br />cartoons<br />Adapted and visualised from Banks (2001)<br />
What is a diagram? <br />(Table adapted from Varga-Atkins and O’Brien (2009) and Engelhardt (2002)) Umoquit et al, forthco...
Multidisciplinary terminology: who?<br />
What is ‘the’ data?<br />= data<br />= data<br />e.g. Haidet et al 2008<br />e.g. West et al. 200o<br />= data<br />e.g. J...
Summary: broad, inclusive framework<br />Diagrammatic Elicitation<br />A diagram is...<br />while a concept map is...<br /...
Which method for what?<br />The purpose/focus of the research will determine which diagram type is suitable (network maps,...
Part 2: ontological consequences<br />Data<br />‘Visual’ (graphic) methods<br />Diagrams<br />Researcher<br />Drawings<br ...
Diagrams<br />Researcher: settling, levelling, helped with facilitation; <br />Participant: understood easily, no drawing ...
Drawings<br />Researcher: process alerting them to importance of meaning making<br />Participant: reduces boundary between...
Cartoons (drawn characters)<br />Parents’ experience about taking their baby to classroom with <br />types and mood cards<...
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Diagrammatic elicitation & When to use diagrams, drawings and cartoons?

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This presentation was given by Tunde Varga-Atkins at the 2011 International Visual Methods conference at the Open University, UK, Milton Keynes (Sep13-15 2011). It is a collaboration between Muriah Umoquit, Peggy Tso, Tunde and Mark O'Brien and Johannes Wheeldon. It combines two papers into one (one on terminology and diagrammatic elicitation) and another one on the ontological consequences of using diagrams, drawings and cartoons. (This combination was due to an admin error - both papers are available in more detail on request.)

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  • Very interesting content, I like the especially the part about what diagrams are good for in comparison to tables. We seems to have a common interest in visualization by diagrams. Good luck with your work.
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  • The term “participatory diagramming” being used in different disciplines for different process/method and end product.In geography: made prioritized lists in groups, end product is a list or tableIn health policy: individuals draw out a visual diagram in interview, end product is the transcript and the diagramSame term but a different method and a different end product
  • Again, same term but a different method and a different end product (Point of last two slides):Just a snapshot of the confusing territory surrounding just a few of the terms used to describe the use of diagrams as a data collection approach.
  • Ask audience: So, what is a “diagram”?Not an easy thing to agree on ----many discussions between the authors on thisTop Left: geographical map ----not a diagramTop right: mind map or concept map –diagramBottom left: Process map ---a diagramBottom right: drawing –not a diagram
  • Summarizes the differences and similarities between three categories of graphic communications used as qualitative data collection approaches: drawings, diagrams and tables &amp; lists. While there may be overlap in the categories, we discuss these as ideal types.(I don’t want to dwell on this slide too much although it could end up being quite an interesting one for the audience…)
  • Transcript of "Diagrammatic elicitation & When to use diagrams, drawings and cartoons?"

    1. 1. When to use a diagram, drawing or cartoon in participatory research? Exploring the ontological consequences of visual methods through activity theory<br />Mark O’Brien: Centre for Lifelong Learning, University of Liverpool<br />TündeVarga-Atkins:Centre for Lifelong Learning, University of Liverpool<br />Muriah Umoquit: Cancer Services & Policy Research Unit, Cancer Care Ontario<br />Peggy Tso:Department of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto<br />Johannes Wheeldon:Faculty of Criminal Justice, Heritage University<br />Second International Visual Methods conference<br />14 Sep 2011<br />Open University, UK<br />
    2. 2. Does a diagram “by any other name smell as sweet”?<br />Placing diagrammatic elicitation in the spectrum of visual and verbal data collection<br />Muriah Umoquit: Cancer Services & Policy Research Unit, Cancer Care Ontario<br />Peggy Tso:Department of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto<br />TündeVarga-Atkins:Centre for Lifelong Learning, University of Liverpool<br />Mark O’Brien: Centre for Lifelong Learning, University of Liverpool<br />Johannes Wheeldon:Faculty of Criminal Justice, Heritage University<br />Second International Visual Methods conference<br />14 Sep 2011<br />Open University, UK<br />
    3. 3. How it all came about?<br />Umoquit et al Systematic review on using diagrams in interviews: terminology!<br />Varga-Atkins & O’Brien: drawings or diagrams?<br />Using diagrams in interviews<br />Common terminology is needed!(under review IJQM)<br />Drawings, diagrams or cartoons?<br />Cultural-historical activity theory and ‘the visual’ in research: exploring the ontological consequences of the use visual methods<br />(preparing for special issue for IJRME)<br />Wheeldon: confusion between concept and mind maps!<br />
    4. 4. Revised presentation outline<br />Part 1 – diagrammatic elicitation<br />The problem of terminology in (visual) research methods:<br />The research context;<br />Terminology mismatch;<br />Defining diagrammatic elicitation:<br />What is a diagram;<br />Why terminology matters;<br />What is diagrammatic elicitation;<br />Part 2 – drawings, diagrams and cartoons – choice of research method bearing influence on research data? – a trailer<br />
    5. 5. The ‘problem’: what’s in a name?<br />Rose<br />Method name<br />Method<br />Correspondence important!!! <br /><ul><li>Able to instruct participant
    6. 6. Able to analyse
    7. 7. Interdisciplinary research
    8. 8. Share research experiences, methods etc.</li></ul>Correspondence (name = signifier) is not important<br />
    9. 9. Terminology mismatch: A<br />‘Participatory diagramming’<br />Post-it notes arranged by groups to make prioritized lists<br />Interviewees drew out a <br />visual diagram<br />VS<br />Hopkins 2006<br />Umoquit et al 2010<br />
    10. 10. Terminology mismatch: B<br />‘Graphic elicitation’<br />Interviewees created a diagram to show informal and formal networks<br />Interviewees verbally edited researcher prepared diagrams<br />VS<br />Varga-Atkins, O’Brien 2009<br />Crilly et al 2006<br />
    11. 11. Purpose: multidisciplinary terminology<br />Define what a diagram is<br />Place diagramming in context of elicitation<br />Diagrammatic elicitation<br />Define subcategories of <br />diagrammatic elicitation<br />
    12. 12. What is a diagram?<br />Diagram?<br />
    13. 13. What is a diagram?<br />cartoons<br />Adapted and visualised from Banks (2001)<br />
    14. 14. What is a diagram? <br />(Table adapted from Varga-Atkins and O’Brien (2009) and Engelhardt (2002)) Umoquit et al, forthcoming <br />
    15. 15. Multidisciplinary terminology: who?<br />
    16. 16. What is ‘the’ data?<br />= data<br />= data<br />e.g. Haidet et al 2008<br />e.g. West et al. 200o<br />= data<br />e.g. Jafri et al 2008<br />
    17. 17. Summary: broad, inclusive framework<br />Diagrammatic Elicitation<br />A diagram is...<br />while a concept map is...<br />and a mind map is...<br />Network maps<br />Diagrams<br />Concept maps<br />Tables<br />Mind maps<br />Geographical maps<br />Organisational charts<br />Drawings<br />Interdisciplinary dialogue<br />
    18. 18. Which method for what?<br />The purpose/focus of the research will determine which diagram type is suitable (network maps, mind maps or organisational charts).<br />Same true when it comes to the choice between diagrams and other graphic representation methods.<br />Progression: we came to appreciate that (graphic) research tools are not ontologically neutral.<br />Credit to Mark O’Brien (theoretical lense: activity theory). <br />
    19. 19. Part 2: ontological consequences<br />Data<br />‘Visual’ (graphic) methods<br />Diagrams<br />Researcher<br />Drawings<br />Cartoons<br />Theoretical lense: cultural-historical activity theory <br />
    20. 20. Diagrams<br />Researcher: settling, levelling, helped with facilitation; <br />Participant: understood easily, no drawing skills <br />The research: birds’ eye view: allows conceptualising, contrasting, and comparing; abstraction: allowed to focus on network relationships<br />
    21. 21. Drawings<br />Researcher: process alerting them to importance of meaning making<br />Participant: reduces boundary between researcher and participant; friendly<br />The research: interpretations and to express their meaning<br />Mair and Kierans 2007: ‘draw and write’ method<br />Also : Nossiter and Biberman<br />
    22. 22. Cartoons (drawn characters)<br />Parents’ experience about taking their baby to classroom with <br />types and mood cards<br />Researcher: relaxed participants, intimacy, demystifying research<br />Participant: seeking resemblances, switching between first / third person<br />The research: able to get at feelings, emotions, psychological states<br />
    23. 23. Summary <br />The research methods adopted can affect the kinds of data produced in the research ‘output’ (theoretical lense: activity theory) <br />
    24. 24. Questions<br />?<br />?<br />?<br />Contact: TündeVarga-Atkinstva@liv.ac.uk<br />http://academia.edu <br />If you are interested in a fuller discussion discussion please sign up on paper to a potential webinar (please put your name and email) <br />
    25. 25. References<br />Banks, M. (2001). Visual Methods in social research. London: Sage.<br />Crilly N, Blackwell A, Clarkson P. Graphic elicitation: using research diagrams as interview stimuli. Qualitative Research. 2006; 6.<br />Hopkins, P. (2006). Youth transitions and going to university: the perceptions of students attending a geography summer school access programme.Area, 38, 240-247.<br />Umoquit, M. J., Dobrow, M. J., Lemieux-Charles, L., Ritvo, P. G., Urbach, D. R., & Wodchis, W. P. (2008). The efficiency and effectiveness of utilizing diagrams in interviews: an assessment of participatory diagramming and graphic elicitation. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 8(53).<br />Umoquit, M. J., Tso, P., Burchett, H. E. D., & Dobrow, M. J. (2011) A multidisciplinary systematic review of the use of diagrams as a means of collecting data from research subjects: application, benefits and recommendations. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 11(11).<br />Umoquit, M., Tso, P., Varga-Atkins, T., O'Brien, M., Wheeldon, J. Diagrammatic elicitation: defining the use of diagrams in data collection. International Journal of Qualitative Methods(in review).<br />Varga-Atkins, T. & O'Brien, M. (2009). From drawings to diagrams: Maintaining researcher control during graphic elicitation in qualitative interviews.International Journal of Research & Methods in Education, 32.<br />Wheeldon, J. & Faubert, J. (2009a). Framing Experience: Concept Maps, Mind Maps and Data Collection in Qualitative Research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 8, 68-83.<br />Wheeldon, J. & Faubert, J. (2009b). Framing Experience: Concept Maps, Mind Maps, and Data Collection in Qualitative Research.International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 8, 68-83.<br />West, D. C., Pomeroy, J. R., Park, J. K., Gerstenberger, E. A., & Sandoval, J. (2000). Critical thinking in graduate medical education: A role for concept mapping assessment?Journal of the American Medical Association, 284, 1105-1110.<br />
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