RadiationIt comes from outer space, the
ground, and even from within our own bodies. Radiation is
all around us and has been present since the birth of this
planet. Radiation simply is part of our daily lives. The word,
“radiation,” generally brings to mind nuclear power plants,
nuclear weapons, or medical diagnostics and treatments.
Nonetheless, we routinely encounter a variety of radiation
sources every day, for example, smoke detectors, household
appliances, electrical power lines, and even the sun.
- can be defined as the emission of high energy
particles or radioactive substance into air, water or
land due to human activities in the form of
- is the term used to describe the natural
process by which some atoms spontaneously
disintegrate, emitting both particles and energy as
they transform into different, more stable atoms. also
called radioactive decay, occurs because unstable
isotopes tend to transform into a more stable state.
- occurs because unstable isotopes tend to transform
into a more stable state. Radioactivity is measured in terms
of disintegrations, or decays, per unit time. Common units of
radioactivity are the Becquerel, equal to 1 decay per second,
and the Curie, equal to 37 billion decays per second.
- is usually the product of a nuclear process such as
nuclear fission, which is extensively used in nuclear reactors,
nuclear weapons and other nuclear fuel-cycles. Radioactive
- that is spread through the earth’s atmosphere is
While there are many causes of radiation
pollution (including research and medical procedures and
wastes, nuclear power plants, TVs, computers, radio waves,
cell-phones, etc.), the most common ones that can pose
moderate to serious health risks include:
* Production of nuclear fuel
* Nuclear power reactors
* Use of Radio nuclides in industries for various
* Nuclear tests carried out by Defense Personnel
* Disposal of nuclear waste
* Uranium Mining
• Harmful radiation occurs when unstable nuclei of
atoms decay and release particles. When these
particles touch various organic material such as tissue,
damage may, and probably will be done.
Such rays can cause:
-can damage brain cells
-Radiation and radioactive
substances are used for diagnosis,
treatment, and research.
- All modern
use forms of
radiation. Variations in
the intensity of the
changes in the sound,
pictures, or other
- Researchers use radioactive atoms to determine
the age of materials that were once part of a living
organism. The age of such materials can be estimated by
measuring the amount of radioactive carbon they contain
in a process called radiocarbon dating.
- Environmental scientists use radioactive atoms
known as tracer atoms to identify the pathways taken by
pollutants through the environment.
On one hand, the peaceful uses of
radioactive materials are so wide
and effective that modern civilization
cannot go without them, and on the
other hand, there is no cure for
radiation damage. However, the only
option against nuclear hazards is to
check and prevent radioactive pollution
by taking the following measures and
safety measures should be enforced strictly
leakages from nuclear reactors, careless handling,
transport and use of radioactive fuels, fission products
and radioactive isotopes have to be totally stopped;
there should be regular monitoring and quantitative
analysis through frequent sampling in the risk areas;
waste disposal must be careful, efficient and effective.
appropriate steps should be taken against
safety measures should be strengthened against
preventive measures should be followed so that
background radiation levels do not exceed the
Thus, we can say that
radioactivity causes long
range effects, affecting the
future of humans and
hence, the future of our
The three major types of conditions exists.
Continuous pollution: This type of condition exists in
uranium mines, nuclear reactors, test labs etc. where the
humans are under continuous exposure to radioactive
contaminants and protective clothing is required to avoid
Accidental Pollution: This type of condition exists during
accidental exposure to radiations by virtue of equipment
failure, radiation leak, faulty protective equipment etc.
Occasional Pollution: This condition exists during isolated
experiment or test of nuclear substance.
In land and water, the major source of radioactive
pollution remains with the nuclear fuel cycle. The nuclear
fuel cycle is used in nuclear power plants, extraction and
refinement of materials from nuclear substance to be used
in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons, where the
contaminants are left behind after the useful material
(Nuclear Isotope) is extracted.