Types Of Reactions
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Types Of Reactions

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Types Of Reactions Types Of Reactions Presentation Transcript

  • Types of Chemical Reactions Section 8.2
  • Objectives
    • Define and give general equations for synthesis, decomposition, single-replacement, and double-replacement reactions.
    • Classify a reaction as synthesis, decomposition, single-replacement, single-replacement, double-replacement, or combustion.
  • Objectives
    • List three types of synthesis reactions and six types of decomposition reactions.
    • List four types of single-replacement reactions and three types of double-replacement reactions.
    • Predict the products of single reactions given the reactants.
    View slide
  • Background
    • Thousands of known chemical reactions occur in various systems. Memorizing the equations for so many chemical reactions would be difficult. It is more useful and realistic to classify reactions according to various similarities and regularities.
    View slide
  • Background
    • The five basic types described in this section are:
      • Synthesis
      • Decomposition
      • Single-replacement
      • Double-replacement
      • Combustion
  • Synthesis Reactions
    • In a synthesis reaction, also known as composition reaction, two or more substances combine to form a new compound.
      • General equation: A + X AX .
    • Types of synthesis reactions:
      • Reactions of elements with oxygen and sulfur.
      • Reactions of metals with halogens.
      • Synthesis reaction with oxides.
    • Examples of Reaction of Elements with Oxygen and Sulfur:
      • Forming Oxides and sulfides:
        • 2Mg(s) + O 2 (g) 2MgO(s)
        • 16Rb(s) + S 8 (s) 8Rb 2 S(s)
        • 8Ba(s) + S 8 (s) 8BaS(s)
        • S8(s) + 8O 2 (g) 8SO 2 (g)
        • C(s) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g)
        • 2C(s) + O 2 (g) CO(g)
        • 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2H 2 O(l)
      • Forming Oxides and sulfides:
        • 2Fe(s) + O 2 (g) 2FeO(s)
        • 4Fe(s) + 3O 2 (g) 2Fe 2 O 3 (s)
    • Reactions of Metals with Halogens (most metals react with the halogens (group 17) to form either ionic or covalent compounds.
      • Group 1 metals with Group 17 elements
        • 2Na(s) + Cl 2 (g) 2NaCl(s)
        • 2K(s) + I 2 (g) 2KI(s)
      • Group 2 metals with Group 17 elements
        • Mg(s) + F 2 (g) MgF 2 (s)
        • Sr(s) + Br 2 (l) SrBr 2 (s)
      • Fluorine is so reactive that it combines with almost all metals:
        • 2Na(s) + F 2 (g) 2NaF(s)
        • 2Co(s) + F 2 (g) 2CoF 3 (s)
        • U(s) +3F 2 (g) UF 6 (g)
        • Practical application with fluorine:
          • Sodium fluorine added to municipal water supplies.
          • Cobalt(III) fluoride is a strong fluorinating agent.
          • Uranium(VI) fluoride is the first step in the production of uranium for use in nuclear power plants.
    • Synthesis Reactions with Oxides
      • Oxides of active metals react with water to produce metal hydroxides - example
        • CaO(s) + H 2 O(l) Ca(OH) 2 (s)
      • Many oxides of nonmetals (upper right portion of the periodic table) react with water to produce oxyacids - example
        • SO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) H 2 SO 3 (aq)
        • this reacts with oxygen to produce sulfuric acid
        • 2H 2 SO 3 (aq) + O 2 (g) 2H 2 SO 4 (aq)
      • Certain metal oxides and nonmetal oxides react with each other in synthesis reaction to form salts. CaO(s) + SO 2 (g) CaSO 3 (s )
  • Decomposition Reactions
    • In a decomposition reaction, a single compound undergoes a reaction the produces two or more products.
      • General equation AX A + X
    • Types of decomposition reactions
      • Decomposition of Binary Compounds
      • Decomposition of Metal Carbonates
      • Decomposition of Metal Hydroxides
      • Decomposition of Metal Chlorates
      • Decomposition of Acids
    • Decomposition of Binary Compounds
    • electricity
      • 2H 2 O(l) 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) (called electrolysis)
      • 2HgO(s) 2Hg(l) + O 2 (g)
    • Decomposition of Metal Carbonates
      • CaCO 3 (s) CaO(s) + CO 2 (g)
    • Decomposition of Metal Hydroxides
      • Ca(OH) 2 (s) CaO(s) + H 2 O(g)
    • Decomposition of Metal Chlorates
      • 2KClO 3 (s) 2KCl(s) + 3O 2 (g)
    • Decomposition of Acids
      • H 2 CO 3 (aq) CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l)
      • H 2 SO 4 (aq) SO 3 (g) + H 2 O(l)
  • Single-Replacement Reactions
    • In a single-replacement reaction, also know as a displacement reaction, one element replaces a similar element in a compound.
      • A + BX AX + B or
      • Y + BX BY + X
    • Types of single-replacement reactions
      • Replacement of a Metal in a Compound by Another Metal
      • Replacement of Hydrogen in Water by a Metal
      • Replacement of Hydrogen in Acid by a Metal
      • Replacement of Halogens
    • Replacement of a Metal in a Compound by Another Metal.
      • A more active metal will replace a less active metal.
      • 2Al(s) + 3Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) 3Pb(s) + 2Al(NO 3 ) 3 (aq)
    • Replacement of Hydrogen in Water by a Metal
      • The most-active metals such as those in Group 1, react vigorously with water to produce metal hydroxides and hydrogen.
      • example 2Na(s) + 2H 2 O(l) 2NaOH(aq) + 4H 2 (g)
      • example 3Fe(s) + 4H 2 O(g) Fe 3 O 4 (s) + 4H 2 (g) (Less-active metals react with steam to form a metal oxide and hydrogen gas)
    • Replacement of Hydrogen in an Acid by a Metal
      • The more-active metals react with certain acidic solutions replacing the hydrogen in the acid.
      • example Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) H 2 (g) + MgCl 2 (ag)
    • Replacement of Halogens
      • One halogen replaces another halogen in a compound. Fluorine is the most-active halogen and can replace any other halogen in their compounds.
      • Cl 2 (g) + 2KBr(aq) 2KCl(aq) + Br 2 (l)
      • F 2 (g) + 2NaCl(aq) 2NaF(aq) + Cl 2 (s)
  • Double-Replacement Reactions
    • In double-replacement reactions, the ions of two compounds exchange places in an aqueous solution to form two new compounds.
      • General equation AX + BY AY + BX
    • Formation of a Precipitate
      • The formation of a precipitate occurs when the cations of one reactant combine with the anions of another reactant to form an insoluble or slightly soluble compound.
      • 2KI(aq) + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) PbI 2 (s) + 2KNO 3 (aq)
    • Formation of a Gas
      • In some double-replacement reactions, one of the products in an insoluble gas that bubbles out of the mixture.
      • FeS(s) + 2HCl(aq) H 2 S(g) + FeCl 2 (aq)
    • Formation of Water
      • In some double-replacement reactions, a very stable molecular compound, such as water, is one of the products.
      • HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H 2 O(l)
  • Combustion Reactions
    • In a combustion reaction, a substance combines with oxygen, releasing a large amount of energy in the form of light and heat.
      • 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2H 2 O(g)
      • C 3 H 8 (g) + 5O 2 (g) 3CO 2 (g) + 4H 2 O(g)
  • Section Review
    • List five types of chemical reactions.
    • Complete and balance each of the following reactions identified by type:
      • synthesis: ______ Li 2 O
      • decomposition: Mg(ClO 3 ) 2 ______
      • single-replacement: Na + H 2 O ______
      • double-replacement: HNO 3 +Ca(OH) 2
      • combustion: C 5 H 12 + O 2 ______
  • Section Review
    • Classify each of the following reactions:
      • N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g)
      • 2Li(s) + 2H 2 O(l) 2LiOH(aq) + H 2 (g)
      • 2NaNO 3 (s) 2NaNO 2 (s) + O 2 (g)
      • 2C 6 H 14 (l) + 19O 2 (g) 12CO 2 (g) +14H 2 O(l)
      • NH 4 Cl(s) NH 3 (g) + HCl(g)
      • BaO(s) + H 2 O(l) Ba(OH) 2 (aq)
      • AgNO 3 (aq) + NaCl(aq) AgCl(s) + NaNO 3 (aq)