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1. Information is not knowledge…..2. The only source of knowledge is experience….
Knowledge is like light. Weightless and intangible, it can easily travel the world, enlightening the lives of people everywhere. Yet billions of people still live in poverty unnecessarily. Knowledge Management is a system to facilitate learning, innovation and sharing to achieve the strategic objectives of an organization.
A process by which the expert’s thoughts and experiences are captured A knowledge developer collaborates with an expert to convert expertise into a coded program In simple terms, we want to “know” how experts know what they know .
Focus on how experts approach a problem Look beyond the facts or the heuristics Re-evaluate how well the problem domain is understood How accurate the problem is modeled 4-5
To avoid resources & time in identifying right information. To help creating latest/ updated solution. Avoid duplication of work or ‘reinventing the wheel’ To identify new opportunities, and build on previous work.
EXPLICIT Can be codified in tangible form Can be easily communicated and shared Characteristics – “Know-What”, “Know-Why” and “Know-Who” TACIT Highly personal and therefore inexpressible Not easy to visualize and hard to express Characteristics – “Know-How” Is highly elusive
MOVEMENT OF TACIT KNOWLEDGE “Movement of tacit knowledge within the organization is a distinct experience, not a gradual process of dissemination, and depends on the characteristics of everyone involved…..more of a mindset issue!”
Mere information of law is no longer an USP….. Clients pay for ‘solutions’ not ‘information’ Information imperfections do not exist in the practice of law Real-time transactions require firms to offer real- time solutions Practice of law requires firms to adapt and replicate knowledge into readily usable form
ARTICULATION CHALLENGES Tacit knowledge is a mixture of deliberations, subjective insight, intuition and judgment Difficult to articulate and store Requires extensive personal contact and mentoring CULTURAL CHALLENGES Sharing not part of corporate culture Insecurity / Lack of Trust Lack of absorptive capacity Intolerance for creativity ‘Not-invented-here’ or ‘proprietary’ syndrome
MODES OF TRANSFERRING – TACIT KNOWLEDGE SOCIALIZATION - Tacit to Tacit Occurs through apprenticeship, mentoring or collegial relations. Also described as “implicit learning” or “learning by doing” EXTERNALIZATION – Tacit to Explicit Written down or communicated through anecdotes, narratives, conversations, memos, emails, presentations, group discussions, etc. Also described as “articulation” COMBINATION – Explicit to Explicit Knowledge transferred though standardized and systematic procedures. For ex., through a computer database INTERNALIZATION – Explicit to Tacit Results in distribution of knowledge throughout the organisation and beyond.
TOYOTA PRODUCTION SYSTEMTRAINING EMPLOYEESQUALITY CIRCLESCOUNTERMEASURES
Communities of Practice Creation of Shared workspace or environment Tacit Knowledge by creating a Cultural Environment Personnel Training Knowledge Sharing Activities Incentives to encourage knowledge sharing Time spent in working hours on knowledge sharing activities should be regarded as legitimate The knowledge sharing depends upon social interactions Tacit Knowledge Thru Strong facilitator Focus on Individual
. “Thinking provides knowledge, Knowledge makes you great” Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam Honorable President of India from annual address at Saurashtra University, Rajkot, Gujarat