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Basics of 6LowPAN were explained.

Basics of 6LowPAN were explained.

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6lowpan 6lowpan Presentation Transcript

  • 6LoWPAN (IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks)
  • Introduction
    • IP based devices
      • web services
      • security
      • management
      • frame size
    • issues
      • power & duty cycle
      • multi cast
      • topology
      • bandwidth
      • reliability
    Internet of things
  • Related Technologies
    • RFC 4944
    • ISA 100
    • IPSO
  • Applications
    • Home building automation
    • Health care
    • Industry Automation & Logistics
    • Vehicular Automation
    • Environmental monitoring
    • and many more
  • Architecture
  • Protocol stack
    • UDP is preferred
  • Link layers
    • Compatibility with existing technologies like 802.15.4, Sub-GHz Radio and Power- line communications.
    • Adaptation for IP
    • Addressing of nodes (Locally & Globally)
  • Addressing
    • Extended Unique identifier(EUI-64) -- like Zigbee
    • Configurable short addressing(8-16 bits)
    • Similar like IPv6 64 bits IID is used--- generally called Stateless Address Auto configuration (SAA)
  • Forwarding and Routing 1. IP Routing Model 2. LoWPAN Routing(L3 , Route over)
  • Forwarding and Routing (contd..) 3(a). DLL mesh forwarding (L2, Mesh Under) 3(b). LoWPAN adaptation (L2, Mesh Under)
  • Header Compression
    • Headers of IP is compressed(IPv6 headers occupy more space)
    • Router decompresses the header and transmits over different link
    • MTU is not sufficient
    • Need to achieve flow control
    • Must be used when needed
    • The throughput of network reduces
    Fragmentation and Reassembly
  • Data Packet of 802.15.4 802.15.4 IPv6 header Payload 802.15.4 Mesh Addr Frag IPv6 header Payload 802.15.4 Fragmentation IPv6 header Payload 128 bytes Payload decreases Fragmentation Header Mesh Header
  • IP Header format (HC)
    • For IP , HC1 is used
    • HC2 bit indicates further transport protocols
    • UDP, TCP, ICMPv6
    IPv6 Header UDP
  • RFC4944’s HC
    • TF,FL into 2 bits
    • Version, Payload Length, Link Local Prefix
    • UDP ports (61616-61631)
    Uni Cast Multi Cast Global
  • Improved HC (IPHC)
    • TF,FL are individually compressed
    • Hop limit compression
    • Removes prefixes for IPv6 addresses
    • Supports Multicast for ND, SLAAC
    • 4 bit index represents 16 contexts (if CID is set)
    U M G
  • Networking Issues
    • Establishing a network (Commissioning)
      • new node joining
      • Network re-organizing
    • Uses
      • Service Set ID (WLAN)
      • Security (Wireless Protected Access)
    • Prefix match -- Home network
    • Neighbor Discovery
      • DHCPv6 (Stateless Address Auto configuration)
      • Registration
      • Reg. collision
      • Multi-hop registration
      • Various operations (node, router, edge router)
    • Bootstrapping
  • Networking Issues (contd..)
    • Objectives
      • Confidentiality
      • Integrity
      • Availability
    • Layer2 mechanisms
      • As 802.15.4 implements AES(CCM, RFC 3610)
      • 13 byte key based on 8 byte MAC Id
      • 2^22= 7 weeks of key repetition
    • Layer3 mechanisms (Internet Key Exchange [RFC 2409])
      • Doesn’t suit for LoWPANs
    • Key Management (Enhanced L3)
      • Username & Password
      • Long, Short, Group, Pair wise keys
    • Security
  • Other Aspects
    • Mobility
      • Roaming (macro)
      • Handover (micro)
    • Causes
      • Physical movement
      • Radio channel
      • Network performance
      • Sleep schedules
      • Node failure
    • Node & Network controlled (Wi-Fi, cellular systems)
    • Solutions for Mobility
      • Commissioning
      • Bootstrapping
      • Security
      • Updating DNS
      • Notifying upper layers
    • So far nodes are considered stationary
  • Other Aspects (contd..) MIPv6 Proxy Home Agent
  • Other Aspects (contd..) Proxy MIPv6 NEMO (NEtwork MObility)
  • Application protocols
    • General IPv6
      • HTTP, FTP, SIP, SNMP, RTP, SLP
    • Need modifications
    • SOAP, REST (Simple Object Access Protocol, REpresenational State Transfer)
    • Need Port Address
  • Application protocols (contd..)
    • Networking
    • Host Issues
    • Compression
    • Security
  • Application protocols (contd..)
    • Protocol paradigms
      • End to End
      • Real Time Streaming / Session
      • Pub/ Sub
    • Common Protocols
      • Web service protocols
      • MQTT (MQTT-S)
      • ZIGBEE Compact Application Protocol
      • Service Discovery
        • SLP, UPnP, DPWS
      • Industry Specific (BACnet, oBIX, ANSI c12.19)
    • ZCAP, MQTT has own discovery features
  • Implementing 6lowpan Single Chip Two Chip
  • Implementing 6lowpan (contd..)
    • Protocol Stacks
      • ContikiOS & uIPv6
      • TinyOS & BLIP
      • Sensinode NanoStack
      • Jennic 6LoWPAN
      • Nivis ISA100 (Industrial Standard)
  • Implementing 6lowpan (contd..)
    • ContikiOS
      • C
      • MSP430, AVR, HC12, Z60, etc..
      • 2kB RAM, 40kB ROM
      • LoWPAN Support
      • Multitasking
      • Event driven kernel
      • uIP stack
      • Thread based
      • COOJA Simulator
      • TMote
    • TinyOS
      • nesC
      • MSP430, AVR
      • 0.4kB RAM
      • LoWPAN Support
      • BLIP
      • TOS Simulator
      • FIFO
      • OS merges with Program
      • TelosB, IMote etc..
  • Implementing 6lowpan (contd..) H/W Platform Contiki OS TinyOS Application development Hardware Interaction layer Hardware Implementation Layer nesC TinyOS