6LoWPAN (IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks)
Introduction  <ul><li>IP based devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>web services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>security </li></ul></...
Related Technologies <ul><li>RFC 4944 </li></ul><ul><li>ISA 100 </li></ul><ul><li>IPSO </li></ul>
Applications <ul><li>Home building automation </li></ul><ul><li>Health care  </li></ul><ul><li>Industry Automation & Logis...
Architecture
Protocol stack <ul><li>UDP is preferred </li></ul>
Link layers <ul><li>Compatibility with existing technologies like 802.15.4, Sub-GHz Radio and Power- line communications. ...
Addressing <ul><li>Extended Unique identifier(EUI-64) -- like Zigbee </li></ul><ul><li>Configurable short addressing(8-16 ...
Forwarding and Routing 1. IP Routing Model 2. LoWPAN Routing(L3 , Route over)
Forwarding and Routing (contd..) 3(a). DLL mesh forwarding (L2, Mesh Under) 3(b). LoWPAN adaptation (L2, Mesh Under)
Header Compression <ul><li>Headers of IP is compressed(IPv6 headers occupy more space) </li></ul><ul><li>Router decompress...
Data Packet of 802.15.4 802.15.4  IPv6 header  Payload  802.15.4  Mesh Addr  Frag  IPv6 header  Payload 802.15.4  Fragment...
IP Header format (HC) <ul><li>For IP , HC1 is used </li></ul><ul><li>HC2 bit indicates further transport protocols </li></...
RFC4944’s HC <ul><li>TF,FL into 2 bits </li></ul><ul><li>Version, Payload Length, Link Local Prefix </li></ul><ul><li>UDP ...
Improved HC (IPHC) <ul><li>TF,FL are individually compressed </li></ul><ul><li>Hop limit compression </li></ul><ul><li>Rem...
Networking Issues <ul><li>Establishing a network (Commissioning) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>new node joining </li></ul></ul><ul...
Networking Issues  (contd..) <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity...
Other Aspects <ul><li>Mobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roaming (macro) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handover (micro) </li></ul...
Other Aspects  (contd..) MIPv6 Proxy Home Agent
Other Aspects  (contd..) Proxy MIPv6 NEMO (NEtwork MObility)
Application protocols <ul><li>General IPv6 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HTTP, FTP, SIP, SNMP, RTP, SLP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nee...
Application protocols  (contd..) <ul><li>Networking </li></ul><ul><li>Host Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Compression </li></ul>...
Application protocols  (contd..) <ul><li>Protocol paradigms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End to End </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re...
Implementing 6lowpan Single Chip Two Chip
Implementing 6lowpan   (contd..) <ul><li>Protocol Stacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ContikiOS & uIPv6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Implementing 6lowpan   (contd..) <ul><li>ContikiOS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MSP430, AVR, HC12, Z...
Implementing 6lowpan   (contd..) H/W Platform Contiki OS TinyOS Application development Hardware Interaction layer Hardwar...
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6lowpan

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6lowpan

  1. 1. 6LoWPAN (IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks)
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>IP based devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>web services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>frame size </li></ul></ul><ul><li>issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>power & duty cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multi cast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>topology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reliability </li></ul></ul>Internet of things
  3. 3. Related Technologies <ul><li>RFC 4944 </li></ul><ul><li>ISA 100 </li></ul><ul><li>IPSO </li></ul>
  4. 4. Applications <ul><li>Home building automation </li></ul><ul><li>Health care </li></ul><ul><li>Industry Automation & Logistics </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicular Automation </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>and many more </li></ul>
  5. 5. Architecture
  6. 6. Protocol stack <ul><li>UDP is preferred </li></ul>
  7. 7. Link layers <ul><li>Compatibility with existing technologies like 802.15.4, Sub-GHz Radio and Power- line communications. </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation for IP </li></ul><ul><li>Addressing of nodes (Locally & Globally) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Addressing <ul><li>Extended Unique identifier(EUI-64) -- like Zigbee </li></ul><ul><li>Configurable short addressing(8-16 bits) </li></ul><ul><li>Similar like IPv6 64 bits IID is used--- generally called Stateless Address Auto configuration (SAA) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Forwarding and Routing 1. IP Routing Model 2. LoWPAN Routing(L3 , Route over)
  10. 10. Forwarding and Routing (contd..) 3(a). DLL mesh forwarding (L2, Mesh Under) 3(b). LoWPAN adaptation (L2, Mesh Under)
  11. 11. Header Compression <ul><li>Headers of IP is compressed(IPv6 headers occupy more space) </li></ul><ul><li>Router decompresses the header and transmits over different link </li></ul><ul><li>MTU is not sufficient </li></ul><ul><li>Need to achieve flow control </li></ul><ul><li>Must be used when needed </li></ul><ul><li>The throughput of network reduces </li></ul>Fragmentation and Reassembly
  12. 12. Data Packet of 802.15.4 802.15.4 IPv6 header Payload 802.15.4 Mesh Addr Frag IPv6 header Payload 802.15.4 Fragmentation IPv6 header Payload 128 bytes Payload decreases Fragmentation Header Mesh Header
  13. 13. IP Header format (HC) <ul><li>For IP , HC1 is used </li></ul><ul><li>HC2 bit indicates further transport protocols </li></ul><ul><li>UDP, TCP, ICMPv6 </li></ul>IPv6 Header UDP
  14. 14. RFC4944’s HC <ul><li>TF,FL into 2 bits </li></ul><ul><li>Version, Payload Length, Link Local Prefix </li></ul><ul><li>UDP ports (61616-61631) </li></ul>Uni Cast Multi Cast Global
  15. 15. Improved HC (IPHC) <ul><li>TF,FL are individually compressed </li></ul><ul><li>Hop limit compression </li></ul><ul><li>Removes prefixes for IPv6 addresses </li></ul><ul><li>Supports Multicast for ND, SLAAC </li></ul><ul><li>4 bit index represents 16 contexts (if CID is set) </li></ul>U M G
  16. 16. Networking Issues <ul><li>Establishing a network (Commissioning) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>new node joining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network re-organizing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Service Set ID (WLAN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security (Wireless Protected Access) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prefix match -- Home network </li></ul><ul><li>Neighbor Discovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DHCPv6 (Stateless Address Auto configuration) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Registration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reg. collision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-hop registration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various operations (node, router, edge router) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bootstrapping </li></ul>
  17. 17. Networking Issues (contd..) <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Layer2 mechanisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As 802.15.4 implements AES(CCM, RFC 3610) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13 byte key based on 8 byte MAC Id </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2^22= 7 weeks of key repetition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Layer3 mechanisms (Internet Key Exchange [RFC 2409]) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t suit for LoWPANs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key Management (Enhanced L3) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Username & Password </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long, Short, Group, Pair wise keys </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul>
  18. 18. Other Aspects <ul><li>Mobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roaming (macro) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handover (micro) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleep schedules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Node failure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Node & Network controlled (Wi-Fi, cellular systems) </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions for Mobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commissioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bootstrapping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Updating DNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notifying upper layers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>So far nodes are considered stationary </li></ul>
  19. 19. Other Aspects (contd..) MIPv6 Proxy Home Agent
  20. 20. Other Aspects (contd..) Proxy MIPv6 NEMO (NEtwork MObility)
  21. 21. Application protocols <ul><li>General IPv6 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HTTP, FTP, SIP, SNMP, RTP, SLP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need modifications </li></ul><ul><li>SOAP, REST (Simple Object Access Protocol, REpresenational State Transfer) </li></ul><ul><li>Need Port Address </li></ul>
  22. 22. Application protocols (contd..) <ul><li>Networking </li></ul><ul><li>Host Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Compression </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul>
  23. 23. Application protocols (contd..) <ul><li>Protocol paradigms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End to End </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real Time Streaming / Session </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pub/ Sub </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common Protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web service protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MQTT (MQTT-S) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ZIGBEE Compact Application Protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service Discovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SLP, UPnP, DPWS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry Specific (BACnet, oBIX, ANSI c12.19) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ZCAP, MQTT has own discovery features </li></ul>
  24. 24. Implementing 6lowpan Single Chip Two Chip
  25. 25. Implementing 6lowpan (contd..) <ul><li>Protocol Stacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ContikiOS & uIPv6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TinyOS & BLIP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensinode NanoStack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jennic 6LoWPAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nivis ISA100 (Industrial Standard) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Implementing 6lowpan (contd..) <ul><li>ContikiOS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MSP430, AVR, HC12, Z60, etc.. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2kB RAM, 40kB ROM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LoWPAN Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multitasking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Event driven kernel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>uIP stack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thread based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COOJA Simulator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TMote </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TinyOS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nesC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MSP430, AVR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.4kB RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LoWPAN Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BLIP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TOS Simulator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FIFO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OS merges with Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TelosB, IMote etc.. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Implementing 6lowpan (contd..) H/W Platform Contiki OS TinyOS Application development Hardware Interaction layer Hardware Implementation Layer nesC TinyOS
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