International Health

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  • The Federation is one of three components of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, the other two being National Societies and the International Committee of the Red Cross – the ICRC. The Federation’s Secretariat in Geneva is to coordinate and mobilize relief assistance non-conflict humanitarian situations , promote cooperation between National Societies and represent these National Societies in the international field. The role of the field delegations is to assist and advise National Societies with relief operations and development programmes, and encourage regional cooperation. National Societies embody the work and principles of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement in 181 countries. They act as auxiliaries to the public authorities of their own countries in the humanitarian field and provide a range of services including disaster relief, health and social programmes. They also promote awareness of the fundamental principles and humanitarian values and speak and act on behalf of the vulnerable in their country. During wartime, National Societies also assist the affected civilian population and support the army medical services where appropriate. The ICRC, is an impartial, neutral and independent organization whose exclusively humanitarian mission is to protect the lives and dignity of victims of war and internal violence and to provide them with assistance. It directs and coordinates international relief activities conducted by the Movement in situations of conflict. It also endeavours to prevent suffering by promoting and strengthening humanitarian law and universal humanitarian principles.
  • International Health

    1. 1. International Health Dr. D.R. Veda priya Assistant Professor Dept. of community Medicine AVMC&H Pondicherry
    2. 2. “ Nothing on earth is more international than disease” Paul Russel International health
    3. 3. History <ul><li>Disease in any part of the world  Threat to other countries </li></ul><ul><li>In order to prevent the spread  Many attempts by individual ruler eg. Barriers against infection by detection and isolation of travellers. </li></ul><ul><li>14 th cent  Quarantine( to protect against importation of plague for - 40 days)  Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Practiced in many countries  Origin of International health work </li></ul><ul><li>Opposition came from several quarters-- (40 days lead to inconvenience in international trade and travel) </li></ul><ul><li>International conference was set for discussion, agreement and cooperation on matters of international health. </li></ul>International health
    4. 4. History and Development… <ul><li>First International Sanitary Conference (1851, Paris) </li></ul><ul><li>- Attended  Austria, France, Great Britain, Italy, Greece, Portugal, Russia, Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Objective: Introduce some order and uniformity into quarantine measures which varied from country to country </li></ul><ul><li>-Prepared sanitary code  137 articles dealing with cholera, plague, yellow fever(never came into force) </li></ul><ul><li>-Ended in failure </li></ul>International health
    5. 5. <ul><li>Pan American Sanitary Bureau (1902, Americas) </li></ul><ul><li>First international health agency </li></ul><ul><li>Intended to coordinate quarantine procedure in American States </li></ul><ul><li>Pan American Sanitary code  Still in force between the states </li></ul><ul><li>1958  Pan American Health organization-grown as major health agency –headquarters in Washigton,D.C. </li></ul>International health
    6. 6. <ul><li>Office International D’Hygiene Publique(OIHP)- 1907 </li></ul><ul><li>To establish Permanent International Health Bureau(1903) </li></ul><ul><li>Office International D’Hygiene Publique, Paris Office (1907) </li></ul><ul><li> To disseminate information on communicable diseases and to supervise international quarantine measure </li></ul><ul><li> OIHP AND PASB joined together </li></ul><ul><li> British India joined OIHP </li></ul><ul><li> Continued to exist until 1950 and taken over by WHO </li></ul>International health
    7. 7. <ul><li>The Health Organization of the League of Nations (1923) </li></ul><ul><li>After first world war(1914-1918)  league of nations established better world </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Health Organization’ (“take steps of international concern for prevention and control of disease”) </li></ul><ul><li>Not concerned only on quarantine </li></ul><ul><li>HO  branched into nutrition, housing, rural hygiene, training of health workers </li></ul><ul><li>Till second world war they were co-exisiting(OIHP,PASB and HO) </li></ul><ul><li>Later HO only was existing. </li></ul>International health
    8. 8. The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (1943) <ul><li>Purpose  organize recovery from the effect of 2 nd world war. </li></ul><ul><li>Did outstanding work of preventing the spread of typhus and other diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Assistance to malaria control in Italy and Greece </li></ul><ul><li>1946-taken over by interim Commission on the WHO </li></ul>International health
    9. 9. Birth of WHO 1945 The United Nations Conference in San Francisco, USA, unanimously approves the establishment of a new, autonomous international health organization .
    10. 10. 1946 The International Health Conference in New York approves the Constitution of the World Health Organization in July.
    11. 11. 1947 The epidemiological information service is established. An automatic telex reply service, it tracks information on diseases subject to the International Sanitary Regulations (later renamed International Health Regulations) and other communicable diseases of international importance .
    12. 12. 1948 The World Health Organization Constitution comes into force on 7 April .
    13. 13. 1948-1953 Dr. Brock Chisholm from Canada is elected as the first Director-General of the World Health Organization .
    14. 14. 1950 The World Health Assembly establishes World Health Day to take place annually on 7 April.
    15. 15. World Health Day Themes (focus attention on specific aspect of public health) <ul><li>2006  Working together for health </li></ul><ul><li>2005  Make every mother and child count      </li></ul><ul><li>2004  Road safety </li></ul><ul><li>2003    Healthy environments for children </li></ul><ul><li>2002  Move for health     </li></ul>International health
    16. 16. 2009 <ul><li>Make hospitals safe in emergencies </li></ul>
    17. 17. International health <ul><li>Objective: </li></ul><ul><li>The attainment by all peoples of the highest level of health </li></ul><ul><li>(Its major task is to combat disease, especially key infectious diseases , and to promote the general health of the people of the world .) </li></ul><ul><li>Membership: </li></ul><ul><li>Open to all countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Each member state contributes yearly to the budget each is entitled to the services and aid the organization can provide . </li></ul><ul><li>Have right to vote </li></ul>
    18. 18. International health Regional offices and regions of the WHO:        Africa;HQ Brazzaville ,  Congo       Americas ; HQ:  Washington,D.C. , USA       Eastern  Med. ; HQ:  Cairo ,  Egypt       Europe;HQ:  Copenhagen , Denmark        South East Asia;HQ :  NewDelhi , India      Western Pacific; HQ:  Manila , Philippines
    19. 19. Work of WHO <ul><li>Constitutional Function : Act as the directing and coordinating authority on all International health work </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention and Control of specific Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Comprehensive Health Services </li></ul><ul><li>Family Health </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Health </li></ul><ul><li>Health Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Bio-Medical Research </li></ul><ul><li>Health Literature and Information </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation with Other Organization </li></ul>International health
    20. 20. 1. Prevention and Control of specific Diseases <ul><li>Communicable diseases : </li></ul><ul><li> All are sometime the subject of WHO activities </li></ul><ul><li>eg. Global eradication of Small pox  International health cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Important work  Epidemiological surveillance of CD </li></ul><ul><li>WHO collects information and send it to International Health Regulations (IHR--to ensure the maximum security against the international spread of diseases with a minimum interference with world traffic) </li></ul>International health
    21. 21. <ul><li>Non-Communicable Diseases: </li></ul><ul><li>Paid attention to NCD’s Cancer, DM, CVD, Genetic disorders, mental disorders, drug addiction etc </li></ul><ul><li>Vector biology and control, VCRC--Pondicherry </li></ul><ul><li>immunology, </li></ul><ul><li>quality control of drugs and biological products, </li></ul><ul><li>drug evaluation and monitoring and </li></ul><ul><li>health laboratory technology </li></ul><ul><li>(Relavent to control CD’s and NCD’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Immunization against common diseases of childhood </li></ul>International health
    22. 22. 1950 Mass TB immunization gets under way as the bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is used to protect children from tuberculosis .
    23. 23. 1953-1973 Dr Marcolino Gomes Candau of Brazil is elected as the second Director-General of the World Health Organization.
    24. 24. 1955 The Malaria Eradication Programme is launched. Its objective was modified in 1969. Subsequently, most of the malaria eradication programmes were turned into national malaria control programmes .
    25. 25. 1965 The first report on diabetes mellitus is issued. By 2000, 171 million people worldwide carried the disease. The number is likely to increase to at least 366 million by 2030.
    26. 26. 1965 The International Agency for Research on Cancer is established to coordinate and conduct epidemiological and laboratory research into the causes of human cancer.
    27. 27. 1966 The new headquarters building of the World Health Organization in Geneva is inaugurated .
    28. 28. 1973-1988 Dr Halfdan T. Mahler of Denmark is elected as the third Director-General of the World Health Organization .
    29. 29. 1974 The onchocerciasis control programme is launched in collaboration with the World Bank, the United Nations Development Programme and the Food and Agriculture Organization .
    30. 30. 1974 The expanded programme on immunization is launched. Immunization currently averts between 2-3 million deaths every year .
    31. 31. 1975 The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases is established to help coordinate, support and influence global efforts to combat neglected infectious diseases that disproportionately affect poor and marginalized populations.
    32. 32. 1976 The World Health Assembly adopts a resolution on disability prevention and rehabilitation, calling for an integration of rehabilitation into primary health care programmes and community life.
    33. 33. 1977 The first essential medicines list is published. Today, the list contains 340 medicines that address most global priority conditions, including malaria, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, reproductive health and, increasingly, chronic diseases such as cancer and diabetes.
    34. 34. 1978 The International Conference on Primary Health Care in Alma-Ata (in the former Soviet Union) sets the historic goal of &quot;Health for all&quot;.
    35. 35. 1979 A global commission certifies the worldwide eradication of smallpox.
    36. 36. 1986 The global programme on AIDS is created to develop and coordinate a global strategy to fight the disease.
    37. 37. 1988-1998 Dr Hiroshi Nakajima of Japan is elected as the fourth Director-General of the World Health Organization .
    38. 38. 1988 The World Health Assembly endorses a resolution on non-discrimination against people living with AIDS .
    39. 39. 1988 The Global Polio Eradication Initiative is established in collaboration with Rotary International, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and UNICEF.
    40. 40. 1995 The International Commission for the Certification of Dracunculiasis Eradication is established. Dracunculiasis is also known as guinea-worm disease.
    41. 41. 1996 UNAIDS is created with six founding partner agencies.
    42. 42. 1998-2003 Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland of Norway is elected as the fifth Director-General of the World Health Organization .
    43. 43. 2000 The Stop TB Partnership, hosted by WHO, is launched. The partnership includes over 500 partners working to reach the MDG for TB by increasing access to treatment through DOTS programmes, and addressing challenges such as TB/HIV and drug-resistant TB.
    44. 44. 2001 The Measles Initiative is launched in partnership with the American Red Cross, UNICEF, the United Nations Foundation and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. As of October 2007, overall global measles deaths have fallen by 68%.
    45. 45. 2002 The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is created to substantially increase resources to fight three of the world's most devastating diseases .
    46. 46. 2002 The first World report on violence and health is launched. The report's findings and recommendations set a new agenda for the prevention of violence, and lead the way for communities, governments and international agencies to address interpersonal, self-directed and collective violence.
    47. 47. 2003-2006 Dr LEE Jong-wook of the Republic of Korea is elected as the sixth Director-General of the World Health Organization.
    48. 48. 2003 The 3x5 Initiative is launched with UNAIDS, aiming to get three million people on antiretroviral treatment by the end of 2005.
    49. 49. 2003 The World Health Assembly adopts the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, now one of the most widely supported treaties in the history of the United Nations.
    50. 50. 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is first recognized and then controlled. WHO coordinates the international investigation with the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network and works closely with health authorities in the affected countries .
    51. 51. 2005 The World Health Assembly revises and adopts the International Health Regulations, a new legal framework adopted by most countries to contain the threats from diseases that may rapidly spread from one country to another. The regulations came into force in 2007.
    52. 52. 2006 Dr Margaret Chan of the People's Republic of China is elected as the seventh Director-General of the World Health Organization .
    53. 53. 2009 <ul><li>Make hospitals safe in emergencies </li></ul>
    54. 54. Birth of the WHO <ul><li>7 th April 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>World Health Day-7 th April </li></ul><ul><li>Specific theme each year  focus attention on specific aspect of public health </li></ul><ul><li>Objective: </li></ul><ul><li>The attainment by all peoples of the highest level of health </li></ul>International health
    55. 55. Work of WHO <ul><li>Constitutional Function : Act as the directing and coordinating authority on all International health work </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention and Control of specific Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Comprehensive Health Services </li></ul><ul><li>Family Health </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Health </li></ul><ul><li>Health Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Bio-Medical Research </li></ul><ul><li>Health Literature and Information </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation with Other Organization </li></ul>International health
    56. 56. 1. Prevention and Control of specific Diseases <ul><li>Communicable diseases : </li></ul><ul><li> All are sometime the subject of WHO activities </li></ul><ul><li>eg. Global eradication of Small pox  International health cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Important work  Epidemiological surveillance of CD </li></ul><ul><li>WHO collects information and send it to International Health Regulations (IHR--to ensure the maximum security against the international spread of diseases with a minimum interference with world traffic) </li></ul>International health
    57. 57. <ul><li>Non-Communicable Diseases: </li></ul><ul><li>Paid attention to NCD’s Cancer, DM, CVD, Genetic disorders, mental disorders, drug addiction etc </li></ul><ul><li>Vector biology and control, </li></ul><ul><li>immunology, </li></ul><ul><li>quality control of drugs and biological products, </li></ul><ul><li>drug evaluation and monitoring and </li></ul><ul><li>health laboratory technology </li></ul><ul><li>(Relavent to control CD’s and NCD’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Immunization against common diseases of childhood </li></ul>International health
    58. 58. 2. Development of Comprehensive health services <ul><li>Function is to promote and support National health policy development </li></ul><ul><li>NHP2002  Eradicate Polio by 2005, Eliminate Leprosy 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Development of comprehensive  Nat. health prog. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing health system  based on PHC </li></ul><ul><li>Development of health manpower </li></ul><ul><li>Building of long term national capability </li></ul><ul><li>eg. Health infrastructure development. </li></ul>International health
    59. 59. 3. Family health <ul><li>Major programme activities of WHO since 1970 </li></ul><ul><li>Subdivided  Maternal and child health care, human reproduction, nutrition, and health education </li></ul><ul><li>Chief concern  improvement of the quality of life of the family as a unit. </li></ul>International health
    60. 60. 4. Environmental health : <ul><li>Recent activities: </li></ul><ul><li> Protection of quality of air, water and food </li></ul><ul><li> Health conditions at work </li></ul><ul><li> Radiation protection and </li></ul><ul><li>  Early detection of new hazards originating from new technological developments </li></ul><ul><li>Prog. WHO Environmental Health Criteria Prog. </li></ul><ul><li>WHO Environmental Health Monitoring Prog. </li></ul>International health
    61. 61. 5.Health statistics <ul><li>Since 1947 morbidity and mortality statistics are published in </li></ul><ul><li>a. Weekly Epidemiological Records </li></ul><ul><li>b. World Health Statistics quarterly and Annual </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics from different countries should be comparable hence WHO publishes International Classification of Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Updated every 10yrs eg. Neoplasm-(C00-D48) </li></ul>International health
    62. 62. 6. Bio Medical Research <ul><li>WHO  Stimulates and coordinates research work </li></ul><ul><li>World wide  WHO collaborating centers </li></ul><ul><li>For promoting research  Awards grants  Researchers and research institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Two committee </li></ul><ul><li>1. Regional Advisory Committees  define regional health priorities </li></ul><ul><li>2. Global Advisory Committees  deals with policy issues </li></ul>International health
    63. 63. <ul><li>Target of WHO special prog. For Research and Training </li></ul><ul><li>Six diseases  malaria, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, filariasis, leishmaniasis and leporsy </li></ul><ul><li>To develop new tools, training workers strengthen research institutions. </li></ul>International health
    64. 64. 7. Health Literature and Information <ul><li>WHO library </li></ul><ul><li> Satelite centres of Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS) </li></ul><ul><li> Fully computerized indexing system covering the whole of medicine on an international basis. </li></ul>International health
    65. 65. 8. Cooperation with other Organizations <ul><li>Collaborates with UN and other specialized agencies and </li></ul><ul><li>Also with number of international government organizations </li></ul><ul><li> Maintains working relationships. </li></ul>International health
    66. 66. Structure <ul><li>1. World Health Assembly  “Health Parliament” of Nations and the supreme governing body of the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Meets annually at headquarters Geneva. </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><li>To determine international health policy and programmes </li></ul><ul><li>To review the work of the past </li></ul><ul><li>To approve the budget for following year </li></ul><ul><li>To elect Member States to serve for 3 yrs on the Executive Board </li></ul>International health
    67. 67. <ul><li>The Executive Board </li></ul><ul><li>30-31 members  designated as “Member State”. At least 3 persons from each WHO regions </li></ul><ul><li>Meets twice a year </li></ul><ul><li>To give effect to the decision and policies of the Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Has power to take decision  emergencies eg. Earthquakes, floods etc. </li></ul>International health
    68. 68. <ul><li>The Secretariat </li></ul><ul><li> Headed by Director General (chief technical and administrative officer of the organization) </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>To provide technical and managerial support for their national health development prog. </li></ul><ul><li>WHO Secretariat comprised of </li></ul><ul><li>Division of communicable diseases, Division of environmental health, Division of mental health, Division of budget and finance etc. (14) </li></ul>International health
    69. 69. Regions <ul><li>South East Asia-New Delhi </li></ul><ul><li>Africa-Harare (Zimbabwe) </li></ul><ul><li>The Americas-Washington D C (USA) </li></ul><ul><li>Europe-Copenhagen (Denmark) </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Mediterranean-Alexandria (Egypt) </li></ul><ul><li>Western Pacific-Manila (Philippines) </li></ul><ul><li>SEARO: ( Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Korea, Maldives, Timor-Leste, Myanmar, Nepal, Srilanka, Thailand) </li></ul>International health
    70. 70. UNICEF <ul><li>U nited N ations I nternational C hildren’s E mergency F und </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized agency of United Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Established  1946 </li></ul><ul><li>To deal with rehabilitation of children in war ravaged countries </li></ul><ul><li>United Nation’s Children’s Fund  UNICEF </li></ul><ul><li>Head Quarters  United Nations, New York. </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Office  New Delhi </li></ul><ul><li>Works in collaboration with WHO, UNDP, FAO </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. Worked with WHO  urgent problems Malaria, TB etc. </li></ul>International health
    71. 71. <ul><li>Greater attention  “Whole child” concept </li></ul><ul><li>Assistance forwarded should not only to health and nutrition (immediate benefit) but also to their long term personnel development and to the development of countries where they live. </li></ul><ul><li>This approach is called “Country Health Programme” </li></ul>International health
    72. 72. Services provided : <ul><li>1. Child Health: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Provided aid for the production of Vaccines and sera </li></ul><ul><li>Supported India: </li></ul><ul><li>For BCG vaccintion prog. from its inception </li></ul><ul><li> For errection Pencillin plant in, Pune </li></ul><ul><li> Donated two plant for manufacture of triple vaccine and iodized salt. </li></ul>International health
    73. 73. <ul><li>b. Assisted environmental sanitation prog . </li></ul><ul><li>For safe and sufficient water for drinking and household work </li></ul><ul><li>c. Providing Primary Health Care: </li></ul><ul><li>Mother and Children </li></ul><ul><li>(immunization, infant and young child care, family planning, safe water and adequate sanitation) </li></ul>International health
    74. 74. Child Nutrition <ul><li>1950’s  Low cost protein rich foods </li></ul><ul><li>Along with FAO  began “applied nutrition” </li></ul><ul><li>eg. agriculture extension, help pop. to grow and eat food for better nutrition. </li></ul><ul><li>Supplied equipments for modern dairy plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of large dose of vit.A (xerophthalmia is prevalent) </li></ul><ul><li>Enrichment of salt with iodine, </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of iron and folic acid to combat anemias </li></ul>International health
    75. 75. 3. Family and child welfare <ul><li>Improve the care of children both within and outside their homes by </li></ul><ul><li>eg. parent education, day care centers, </li></ul><ul><li>child welfare and youth agencies and women’s club </li></ul>International health
    76. 76. 4.Education –formal and non formal <ul><li>Assisting India in expansion and improvement of teaching science in India </li></ul><ul><li>Science laboratories, </li></ul><ul><li>Work shop tools, </li></ul><ul><li>Library books, </li></ul><ul><li>Audio visual aids </li></ul><ul><li>made available to educational institutions </li></ul>International health
    77. 77. UNICEF’s GOBI — FFF Programs <ul><li>The fact that just four relatively simple and inexpensive methods could now enable parents themselves can save the lives of up to 20,000 children each day. </li></ul><ul><li>In brief, those methods are : </li></ul><ul><li>Growth Monitoring:- which could help mothers to prevent most child malnutrition before it begins .  </li></ul>International health
    78. 78. <ul><li>2.Oral Rehydration:- </li></ul><ul><li>which could save more than 4 million young children who now die each year from diarrhoeal dehydration. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Breast Feeding: Which can ensure that infants have the best possible food and a considerable degree of immunity from common infections during the first six month of life. </li></ul>International health
    79. 79. <ul><li>4.Immunization: </li></ul><ul><li>Which can protect a child against measles, diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, tuberculosis, and polio. </li></ul><ul><li>At present, </li></ul><ul><li>These diseases kill as estimated 5 million young children a year, </li></ul><ul><li>Leave 5 million more disabled, and are a major cause of child malnutrition .  </li></ul>International health
    80. 80. <ul><li>In addition, recent research in the developing world has highlighted three kinds of support for women. </li></ul><ul><li>1. FEMALE EDUCATION : Even within low-income communities, a child born to a mother with no education has been shown to be twice as likely to die in infancy as a child born to a mother with even four years of schooling. </li></ul>International health
    81. 81. <ul><li>2. FAMILY SPACING: Infant and child deaths have been found to be, on average, twice as high when the interval between births is less than two years. </li></ul><ul><li>3. FOOD SUPPLEMENTS: A handful of extra food each day for at-risk pregnant women has been shown to reduce the risk of low birth-weight - a risk which carries with it a two or three times greater likelihood of death in infancy . </li></ul><ul><li>GOBI — FFF </li></ul>International health
    82. 82. UNDP- (United Nations Development Programme) <ul><li> To help poor nations develop their human and natural resources.They cover economic and social sector </li></ul><ul><li>eg. Industry, education, agriculture etc. </li></ul><ul><li>FAO-(The Food and Agriculture Organization) </li></ul><ul><li>To improve nutrition of all countries </li></ul><ul><li>ILO (International Labour Organization) </li></ul><ul><li>To improve the working and living conditions of the working population all over the world </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>International health
    83. 83. <ul><li>International Red cross: </li></ul><ul><li>Is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Which started to protect human life and health, </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure respect for the human being, and </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent and alleviate human suffering, without any discrimination based on race, religion etc </li></ul><ul><li>Principles: Humanity, Impartiality, Neutrality, Independence, Voluntary Service, Unity, Universality. </li></ul>International health
    84. 84. International health Founded by Henry Dunant
    85. 85. International health French postcard celebrating the role of Red Cross nurses during the First World War, 1915
    86. 86. The ICRC Headquarters in Geneva
    87. 87. Slide I.1 - International Red Cross Red Crescent Movement <ul><li>National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies “ National Societies” </li></ul><ul><li>International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies “ International Federation” </li></ul><ul><li>International Committee of the Red Cross &quot; ICRC &quot; </li></ul>International Red Cross Red Crescent Movement ICRC
    88. 88. <ul><li>Indian Red Cross Society ( IRCS ) was established in 1920 under the Indian Red Cross Society Act </li></ul><ul><li>The IRCS has 35 State / Union Territories Branches with their more than 700 districts and sub district branches. </li></ul><ul><li>His Excellency The President of India is the President and Hon'ble Union Health Minister is the Chairman of the Society </li></ul>International health Indian Red Cross
    89. 89. <ul><li>Improvement of health </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention of disease </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation of suffering </li></ul>International health
    90. 90. Programmes and activities <ul><li>Promoting humanitarian principles and values; Disaster response; </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster preparedness  </li></ul><ul><li>  aware of the risks they face, </li></ul><ul><li> how to reduce their vulnerability, and </li></ul><ul><li>how to cope when disaster strikes. and </li></ul><ul><li>Health and Care in the Community </li></ul><ul><li>Too many people die as a result of no access to even the most basic health services and elementary health education </li></ul>International health
    91. 91. Bilateral Agencies <ul><li>USAID </li></ul><ul><li>SIDA </li></ul><ul><li>DANIDA </li></ul>Other INGOs <ul><li>Rockefeller Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Ford Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>CARE </li></ul><ul><li>International Red Cross </li></ul>International health
    92. 92. World Health Day Themes <ul><li>2006  Working together for health </li></ul><ul><li>2005  Make every mother and child count      </li></ul><ul><li>2004  Road safety </li></ul><ul><li>2003    Healthy environments for children </li></ul><ul><li>2002  Move for health     </li></ul>International health
    93. 93. International health

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