Epidemiology Of Stroke

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Risk factors of Stroke and prevention of stroke.

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Epidemiology Of Stroke

  1. 1. Dr.Rajkumar Patil Asstt. Prof., Community Medicine AVMCH, Pondicherry
  2. 2. <ul><li>Rapidly developed clinical signs of focal </li></ul><ul><li>(or global) disturbance of cerebral function; lasting more than 24 hours or leading to death, with no apparent cause other than vascular origin </li></ul><ul><li>TIA: <24 hours </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Morbidity ( 12 country WHO study) </li></ul><ul><li>Incidence : 0.2 -2.5/1000/yr. </li></ul><ul><li>Mortality: leading cause of death & </li></ul><ul><li>disability through out world </li></ul><ul><li>33% cases die within 3 weeks, 48% die within 1yr </li></ul>
  4. 5. Host Factors 1.Age 80% cases: In India >40 yr; while in developed countries >65 yr 2.Sex Males 3.Personal History History of DM/HT/Cardiovascular diseases
  5. 6. Pathogenesis of Stroke
  6. 7. Types of Paralysis
  7. 8. Types of stroke
  8. 9. <ul><li>Subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH) </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebral hemorrhage </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebral thrombosis or embolism </li></ul><ul><li>Occlusion of pre cerebral arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Transient cerebral ischemia (TCI) more than 24 hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Ill defined cardiovascular disease , </li></ul><ul><li>when underlying pathology is in brain </li></ul>
  9. 10. Risk Factors of Stroke
  10. 12. <ul><li>SHAME are the risk factors for Stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertension/ Hyperlipidemia, </li></ul><ul><li>Atrial fibrillation </li></ul><ul><li>Male </li></ul><ul><li>Elderly </li></ul><ul><li>5 Cs are the causes for stroke in young age </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiogenic emboli </li></ul><ul><li>CNS infection [HIV conditions] </li></ul><ul><li>Congenital arterial lesion </li></ul><ul><li>Cocaine </li></ul>Risk Factors of Stroke
  11. 14. <ul><li>Control of Hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Control of Diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Control of Cholesterol & Saturated Fat Intake </li></ul><ul><li>No alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>No smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Regular exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain healthy weight </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid illicit drug like cocain which is associated with TIA </li></ul>Primary Prevention of Stroke
  12. 15. Early diagnosis and management of TIA/Stroke Secondary Prevention of Stroke
  13. 16. Secondary Prevention of Stroke
  14. 17. Secondary Prevention of Stroke
  15. 18. <ul><li>Remove obstruction to restore </li></ul><ul><li>blood flow to brain </li></ul><ul><li>Clot busting drugs within 3 hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Carotid endarterectomy </li></ul><ul><li>Angioplasty </li></ul><ul><li>Preventive medications </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-platelet drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-coaggulants </li></ul>Secondary Prevention of Stroke (Treatment)
  16. 19. <ul><li>1.Disability Limitation </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention of Complications </li></ul><ul><li>Good nursing care (bladder and bowel) </li></ul><ul><li>2.Rehabilitation </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul>Tertiary Prevention of Stroke
  17. 20. Thank You

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