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Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
Epidemiology Of Cancer
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Epidemiology Of Cancer

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  • 1. Dr RajkumarPatil<br />Asstt.Prof.,Community Medicine<br />AVMCH,Pondicherry<br />
  • 2. Definition<br />A group of diseases characterized by : <br /><ul><li>abnormal growth of cells
  • 3. ability to invade adjacent tissues & even distant organs
  • 4. the eventual death of the affected patient if the tumourhas progressed beyond that stage when it can be successfully removed </li></li></ul><li>Major categories of Cancer <br />I.<br />Carcinoma - arise from epithelial cells lining internal surfaces of various organs &amp; from skin epithelium <br />Sarcoma- arise from mesodermal cells constituting various connective tissues<br />Lymphoma, myeloma &amp; leukaemia- arise from cells of bone marrow &amp; immune systems <br />
  • 5. II.<br />“Primary tumour” –<br />cancer in the organ of origin<br />“Secondary tumour”- <br />cancer that has spread to regional lymph nodes and distant organs <br />
  • 6. Problem statement<br />Worldwide<br />22.4 million living with cancer<br />10 million diagnosed every year<br />6 million deaths every year<br />India<br />2.5 million living with cancer<br />7 lakhdiagnosed every year<br />3.5 lakh deaths every year<br />
  • 7. Worldwide<br />INCIDENCE<br />Lung (12.3%)<br />Breast (10.4%)<br />Colorectal (9.3%)<br />MORTALITY<br />Lung (17.4%)<br />Stomach (10.4%)<br />Liver (8.8%)<br />
  • 8. Gender wise (Person) distribution of Cancer<br />WORLD<br />Males (LSC)<br />Lung <br />Stomach<br />Colorectal<br />Females (BCC)<br />Breast<br />Cervix<br />Colorectal <br />INDIA<br />Males<br />Oral <br />Oesophagus<br />Stomach<br />Trachea/ bronchus<br />Females<br />Cervix<br />Breast<br />Oral <br />Oesophagus<br />
  • 9. Time trends<br /><ul><li>6th cause of death in the 1900s
  • 10. 2ndcause of death in 2000 because of:
  • 11. Increase in life expectancy
  • 12. Better & accurate diagnosis
  • 13. Increase in cigarette smoking</li></li></ul><li>Place distribution<br />Developed countries: lifestyle and dietary habits<br /> e.g. Ca lung, Ca breast, Ca colorectal<br />Developing countries: infective origin<br /> e.g. Ca Cervix, Ca Liver, Ca stomach<br />Ca stomach common in Japan, not in US<br />Ca Cervix more common in SEAR, not in Japan<br />
  • 14. Causes of cancer<br />I.Environmental factors<br /><ul><li>Tobacco
  • 15. Alcohol: oesophageal ,liver cancer,rectal cancer
  • 16. Dietary factors:</li></ul>Smoked fish-stomach cancer, beef-bowel cancer,high fat diet-breast cancer<br />Also food additives &amp; contaminants-suspicion as causative agents<br />Low fruit and vegetable intake<br />
  • 17.
  • 18. Components of a cigarette<br />
  • 19. Artificial sweetner (Saccharin)and bladder cancer<br />
  • 20. Diseases associated with Tobacco<br />
  • 21. Drugs causing Cancer<br />
  • 22. OCPs and Breast Cancer<br />
  • 23. Carcinogens in different occupations<br />
  • 24. Immunosuppressive agents and cancer<br />
  • 25. Radiations and cancer<br />
  • 26. Infections and Cancer<br />
  • 27. Schistosomiasis and bladder cancer<br />
  • 28. Automobile emissions<br />
  • 29. PAH exposure<br />
  • 30. Industrial emissions<br />
  • 31. Aflatoxins<br />
  • 32. NHL in AIDS case<br />
  • 33. Asbestos and lung cancer<br />
  • 34. Textile dyeing exposure<br />
  • 35.
  • 36. Chernobyl nuclear tragedy<br />
  • 37. II. Genetic Factors<br />1.Mutations in genes result <br /> in altered proteins<br /><ul><li>During cell division
  • 38. External agents</li></ul>2. Most cancers result from<br /> mutations in somatic cells<br />3. Some cancers are caused by<br /> mutations in germline cells<br />
  • 39. Cancer prevention and control More than 30% of cancer deaths can be preventedPrimary prevention<br />Control of tobacco and alcohol consumption<br />Personal hygiene<br />Radiation protection<br />Occupational protection<br />Immunization: HPV,Hep.B<br />
  • 40. Primary prevention contd…<br />Cautious use of foods, drugs and cosmetics<br />Control of Air pollution<br />Treatment of precancerous lesions<br />Legislation<br />Cancer education <br />
  • 41.
  • 42. Cancer education:Warning signs of cancer<br />
  • 43. Secondary prevention<br />Cancer registration<br />Hospital-based registry<br />Population-based registry: <br /> Bangalore, Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Bhopal<br />Early detection of case: Screening<br />3. Treatment:Surgery,Radiotherapy,chemotherapy<br />4. Palliative care: Relief from pain <br /> and other problems <br />
  • 44. Cancer screening<br />Why screening is possible?<br />Precancerous or premalignant lesions<br />Localized lesions initially<br />75% Of cancer are at accessible body sites<br />
  • 45. Methods of cancer screening<br />Mass screening of more than one site<br /> (of cancer)<br />Mass screening at single site<br />Selective screening: high risk group<br />
  • 46. Epidemiology of Oral cancer<br />Commonest cancer in India (70%)<br />90% of oral cancers due to tobacco <br />Alcohol<br />High risk groups: <br />tobacco smokers &amp; chewers,<br />bidismokers, betel quid, tobacco quid<br />Cultural patterns:<br />Cigarttes,bidi,cigar,chilum,<br /> hookah(hubble-bubble),khaini,nasswar,snuff<br />Ca palate in Andhrapradesh: <br /> with habit of reverse smoking of cigar<br />
  • 47.
  • 48. Oral Cancer<br />
  • 49. Leukoplakia<br />
  • 50. Smoking in females<br />
  • 51. Smoking in young population<br />
  • 52. Prevention and control of oral cancer<br />1.Primary<br />Education,motivation,legislative<br />2.Secondary<br /><ul><li>Early case detection and treatment
  • 53. Leukoplakia treatment:</li></ul>Cessation of tobacco use<br />Surgery<br />Radiotherapy<br />
  • 54. Stomach Cancer<br />World’s 2nd most common cancer<br />1 million new cases/year<br />2/3 cases in developing countries<br />Most are adenocarcinoma<br />Causes:H.pyloriinf.,improper preservation of foods,smoked fish<br />Symptoms nonspecific<br />Diagnosis: barium x-ray,biopsy<br />Treatment:Surgery,chemotherapy<br />
  • 55. Smoked fish and stomach Ca<br />
  • 56. Thank you…<br />

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