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Epidemiology Of Accidents
 

Epidemiology Of Accidents

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Accidents can be prevented.

Accidents can be prevented.

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    Epidemiology Of Accidents Epidemiology Of Accidents Presentation Transcript

    • Accidents and Injuries Dr.Rajkumar Patil Asstt. Prof., Community Medicine AVMCH, Pondicherry
      • Accident
      • Unpremeditated events resulting in recognizable damage
      • Feeling of misfortune,unavoidable nature
      • Injury
      • A bodily lesion due to acute exposure to energy
      • beyond the physiological tolerance.
      • In some cases injury is due to insufficiency of a
      • vital element
      • Feeling of preventable nature
    • Leading contributor in global diseases
      • 1990
      • 1.Lower Rasp. Infec.
      • 2.Diarrhoea
      • 3.Prenatal condition
      • 4.Unipolar major depression
      • 5.IHD
      • 6.Stroke
      • 7.TB /HIV
      • 8.Measles
      • 9.Road traffic Injury
      • 10.Congenital
      • 2020
      • 1.IHD
      • 2.Major Depression
      • 3.Road Traffic Injury
      • 4.Stroke
      • 5.COPD
      • 6.Lower Resp. Inf.
      • 7.TB
      • 8.Perinatal condition
      • 9.Diarrhea Diseases
      • 10.HIV
    •  
    • Types of Injuries and Global burden Unintentional (3.5 million deaths, 6.2% of total deaths) Intentional (1.6 million deaths, 2.8% of total deaths) RTA(2.1%) Self inflicted(1.5%) Falls(0.7%) Interpersonal violence(homicide)(1%) Drowning(0.7%) War(0.3%) Poisoning(0.6%) Fires(0.5%) Others(1.6%)
    • Injuries in SEA More than 25% deaths due to injuries occur in SEAR Prioritization of injury problem in India RTA>Work related>Burns>Violence>Poisoning>Drowning Injury related mortality rate in India 97 deaths/100,000 population
    • Epidemiology of Injuries Injury as a disease Pathologic condition Host Agent Vector /vehicle Inter-action Malaria Human Plasmodium vivax Mosquito Bite Skull fracture Human Mechanical Energy Motorcycle Crash
    • Host factors Age:15-44 yrs(50% mortality) Sex: More in males Education: Low educational status Diseases: Defective vision,sudden illness,fatigue Psychological factors: Inexperience,aggresiveness,defective judgement, Alcoholism,drugs,stress
      • Road Traffic Accidents(RTA)
      • 90% of all RTA deaths occurs in low,middle income countries
      • Causes of RTA
      • 1.Pedestrians and animals sharing common road
      • 2.Fast and slow moving vehicles
      • 3.Old,poorly maintained vehicles
      • 4.Low driving standards
      • 5.Overloaded vehicles
      • 6.Disobey of traffic rules
      • 7.Defective roads,speed breakers,poor street lighting
      • 8.Unusual behaviour of men and animals
      • Prevention and control of RTA/RTI
      • 1.Education regarding safety
      • “ If accident is a disease,education is its vaccine”
      • 2.Promotion of safety measures
      • Seat belts
      • Safety helmets
      • Children on back seats
      • Parking at a suitable place
      • Low beam headlights
      • Avoidance of mobile phones
      • Door locks
      • Proper vehicle design
      • Avoidance of alcohol and drugs
      • 3.Elimination of causative factors
      • Marking of danger points
      • Improvement of road conditions
      • Imposition of speed limit
      • 4.Enforcement of laws
      • Medical fitness of driver
      • Alcohol conc. In blood (80 mg/100 ml limit in India)
      • Driving test
      • Seat belt wearing
      • Speed limit
      • Helmets
      • Vehicle inspection
      • Periodic examination of drivers
      • 5.Emergency care services
      • Planning,organization and management of trauma treatment
      • and emergency care services
      • Emergency care at the point of accident
    •  
      • Domestic Accidents
      • 1.Drowning
      • Most common cause of accidental deaths in Bangladesh and Maldives
      • 98000 lives lost (SEAR,2002)
      • Prevention and control of drowning
      • Availability of life jackets and flotation devices around pools & boats
      • Supervision of children by adults
      • Fencing of lakes and ponds
      • Creation of safety standards for public and private swimming pools
      • Ensuring availability of weather reports to fishermen and
      • to those working on rivers and seas
      • 2.Fire/Burn
      • 184,000 deaths (SEAR,2002)
      • SEAR accounts for >50% of all fire related mortality
      • Risk factors
      • Cooking on open fire
      • Explosion of pressure stoves
      • Instability of small stoves
      • Use of open fires in winter
      • Use of inflammable materials in house
      • Use of fire crackers
      • Prevention and control of burns
      • Stable stoves/lamps
      • Replacement of pressure stoves with wick and gas stoves
      • Installation of fire and smoke alrama
      • Promotion of cold water for first aid and burns
      • 3.Poisoning
      • 95,000 death(SEAR,2002)
      • Agents: pesticides,kerosene,prescription drugs,
      • household chemicals
      • Prevention and control of poisoning
      • Restricting availability of hazardous pesticides
      • Promotion of alternative non-chemical methods of pest control
      • Safe packaging of pesticides,insecticides and other chemicals
      • Dying kerosene blue and treating it with bittering agents
      • Selling therapeutic drugs in child resistant containers
      • Educating medical practitioners,health workers and community
      • on effective antidotes to poisons common in community
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                                
    • 4.Falls Responsible for largest number of hospital visits for non-fatal injuries Prevention and control of falls 1.Safer playground(Use of mud & sand surfaces instead of paved ones) 2.Safer furniture & house designs 3.Use of grills on windows 4.Safer design of stairs,balconies and rooftops with railings and bars 5.Safer working techniques for construction workers 5.Injuries from sharp objects 6.Animal bites
      • Industrial accidents
      • 200,000 deaths per year in SEAR
      • Risk factors
      • Physical(Heat)
      • Chemical(Pesticides)
      • Biological(Animal bites)
      • 4 “M”s
      • Mechanical Injuries(Thressure)
      • Manual labour
      • Man machine interaction
      • Mental condition
      • Prevention and control of industrial accidents
      • Ensuring the cost effective protection measures
      • Enforcing safety regulations and standards
      • Creating awareness among workers
      • Intentional Injuries
      • 1.6 million deaths(Globally-2002)
      • 390,000 deaths in SEAR
      • 66% suicides in 15-34 years age group
      • Intentional injuries require:
        • Motivated person who injures
        • Suitable target
        • Suitable environment
      • Risk factors
        • Violence as a means to solve the problem
        • Lethal weapons availability
        • Alcohol and drug consumption
        • Political uninterest
        • Gender unequality
        • Depression
      • Prevention and control of violence
      • Avoidance of risk factors
      • Prevention of Accidents and Injuries
      • 1.Inter-sectoral coordination
      • 2.Reporting of all accidents
      • 3.Safety education
      • 4.Promotion of safety measures
      • 5.Alcohol and other drugs
      • 6.Primary care
      • 7.Enforcement of laws
      • 8.Rehabilitation services
      • 9.Accident research
        • extent
        • types
        • environment
        • human behaviour
        • evaluation of control measures
    • Thank You