• A Disaster can be defined as “any occurrence
that causes damage, ecological disruption,
loss of human life or deterioration of health &
health services on a scale sufficient to warrant
an extraordinary response from outside the
effected community or area.”
• A Hazard can be defined as any phenomenon
that has the potential to cause disruption or
damage to people & environment
• Emergencies & disasters affect health & well-
being of the people
• Large numbers of people are displaced, killed
or injured or subjected to greater RISK OF
• Disasters cause great harm to the existing
infrastructure & threaten the future of
DISASTER IN INDIA
India has been traditionally vulnerable to natural disasters on
account of its unique geo-climatic conditions.
Floods, droughts, cyclones, earthquakes and landslides have
been a recurrent phenomena.
About 60% of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of
various intensities; over 40 million hectares is prone to
about 8% of the total area is prone to cyclones and 68% of the
area is susceptible to drought.
In the decade 1990-2000, an average of about 4344 people
lost their lives and about 30 million people were affected by
disasters every year.
The loss in terms of private, community and public assets has
• The super cyclone in Orissa in October, 1999
and the Bhuj earthquake in Gujarat in January,
2001 underscored the need to adopt a multi
dimensional endeavour involving diverse
scientific, engineering, financial and social
processes; the need to adopt multi
disciplinary and multi sectoral approach and
incorporation of risk reduction in the
developmental plans and strategies.
• United Nations General Assembly, in 1989,
declared the decade 1990-2000 as the
International Decade for Natural Disaster
Reduction with the objective to reduce loss of
lives and property and restrict socio-economic
damage through concerted international
action, specially in developing countries.
Morbidity of Disaster
• On the whole, morbidity which results from a
disaster situation can be classified into four
• 1. Injuries
• 2. Emotional Stress
• 3. Epidemic of the Disease
• 4. Increase in the Indigenous Diseases.
• There are three Fundamental aspects:
2. Disaster Preparedness
3. Disaster Mitigation
Disaster Impact & Response
• Search Rescue & First-aid- most immediate help
comes from uninjured survivors.
• Field care- Proper care , beds, surgical services,
food , shelter , inquiry Centre establishment,
Victim’s identification & provision of adequate
• Tagging regarding name age address, diagnosis &
• Identification of dead & shifting to mortuary &
reception of bereaved relatives.
• Triage consists of rapidly classifying the injured
on the basis of the severity of their injuries & the
likelihood of their survival with prompt medical
• Highest priority is granted to victims whose
immediate or long term prognosis can be
dramatically affected by simple intensive care.
• Moribund patients who require a great deal of
attention , with questionable benefit have the
Red indicates highest priority of t/t.
Yellow signals medium priority
Green indicates ambulatory patients
Black for Dead or Moribund patients
• This phase begins when assistance from outside
starts to reach the disaster area.
• The needed supplies will include food , blankets ,
clothings , shelter , sanitary engineering
Equipment & construction material.
• Four principal components in managing
• a) Acquisition of supplies b)Transportation
• c)Storage D) Distribution
Epidemiological surveillance &
• Disasters can increase the transmission of
Communicable diseases by
Overcrowding & poor sanitation
Contaminated water supply
Disruption of routine control programmes
Breeding of vectors
Displacement of domestic & wild animals who
carry zoonoses e.g. Leptospirosis in Orissa
• There may be
Acute respiratory infections
Vector Borne diseases
Epidemiological surveillance &
• Implement all public health measure as soon
• Organize a reliable disease reporting system to
identify outbreaks and to promptly initiate
disease control measures
• Investigate rapidly
• It starts from very first moment of disaster.
• Water supply – increase residual chlorine level
to about 0.2-0.5mg per litre.
• Keep safe the water resources by fencing &
restricting access of animals.
• Prevent every possible means of
• Food safety personal hygiene & kitchen
sanitation must be ensured.
• Basic Sanitation & personal Hygiene Safe
excreta disposal should be ensured.
• Vector Control must be Intensified.
• Adopting standards & regulations
• Organize communication, information &