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  • 1. Disaster Management DR.VIKRAM GUPTA PG Student(PSM),Patiala
  • 2. Disaster
    • A Disaster can be defined as “any occurrence that causes damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life or deterioration of health & health services on a scale sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from outside the effected community or area.”
  • 3. Hazard
    • A Hazard can be defined as any phenomenon that has the potential to cause disruption or damage to people & environment
  • 4.
    • Emergencies & disasters affect health & well-being of the people
    • Large numbers of people are displaced, killed or injured or subjected to greater RISK OF EPIDEMICS.
    • Disasters cause great harm to the existing infrastructure & threaten the future of sustainable development.
  • 5. DISASTER IN INDIA
    • India has been traditionally vulnerable to natural disasters on account of its unique geo-climatic conditions.
    • Floods, droughts, cyclones, earthquakes and landslides have been a recurrent phenomena.
    • About 60% of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of various intensities; over 40 million hectares is prone to floods;
    • about 8% of the total area is prone to cyclones and 68% of the area is susceptible to drought.
    • In the decade 1990-2000, an average of about 4344 people lost their lives and about 30 million people were affected by disasters every year.
    • The loss in terms of private, community and public assets has been astronomical.
  • 6.
    • The super cyclone in Orissa in October, 1999 and the Bhuj earthquake in Gujarat in January, 2001 underscored the need to adopt a multi dimensional endeavour involving diverse scientific, engineering, financial and social processes; the need to adopt multi disciplinary and multi sectoral approach and incorporation of risk reduction in the developmental plans and strategies.
  • 7.
    • United Nations General Assembly, in 1989, declared the decade 1990-2000 as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction with the objective to reduce loss of lives and property and restrict socio-economic damage through concerted international action, specially in developing countries.
  • 8. Types of Disasters
    • Earthquakes
    • Cyclones & Tornadoes
    • Floods & Tidal Waves
    • Landslides & Volcanic Eruptions
    • Hurricanes
    • Snow storms
    • Severe Air Pollution (Smog)
    • Famines
    • Epidemics
  • 9. Types of Disasters……………
    • Building Collapse
    • Toxicological Accidents
    • Nuclear Accidents
    • Warfare
    • (Warfare is a special category as damage is the Intended Goal of Action)
  • 10. Earthquakes have highest mortality as a result of people being crushed by falling objects & at night they are deadly
  • 11.  
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14.  
  • 15.  
  • 16. Factors affecting Injuries & death
    • Type of disaster
    • Density & distribution of the population
    • Condition of the Environment
    • Degree of the preparedness
    • Oppurtunities of Warning
  • 17. Injuries >>> Death
    • Explosions
    • Eartquakes
    • Typhoons & Hurricanes
    • Fires
  • 18. Death >>> Injuries
    • Landslides
    • Avalanches
    • Volcanic Eruptions
    • Tidal waves
    • Floods
  • 19. Morbidity of Disaster
    • On the whole, morbidity which results from a disaster situation can be classified into four types:
    • 1. Injuries
    • 2. Emotional Stress
    • 3. Epidemic of the Disease
    • 4. Increase in the Indigenous Diseases.
  • 20. Disaster Management
    • There are three Fundamental aspects:
    • 1.Disaster Response
    • 2. Disaster Preparedness
    • 3. Disaster Mitigation
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23. Disaster Impact & Response
    • Search Rescue & First-aid- most immediate help comes from uninjured survivors.
    • Field care- Proper care , beds, surgical services, food , shelter , inquiry Centre establishment, Victim’s identification & provision of adequate mortuary space.
    • Triage
    • Tagging regarding name age address, diagnosis & treatment
    • Identification of dead & shifting to mortuary & reception of bereaved relatives.
  • 24. Triage
    • Triage consists of rapidly classifying the injured on the basis of the severity of their injuries & the likelihood of their survival with prompt medical intervention.
    • Highest priority is granted to victims whose immediate or long term prognosis can be dramatically affected by simple intensive care.
    • Moribund patients who require a great deal of attention , with questionable benefit have the lowest priority.
  • 25.
    • Red indicates highest priority of t/t.
    • Yellow signals medium priority
    • Green indicates ambulatory patients
    • Black for Dead or Moribund patients
  • 26. Relief Phase
    • This phase begins when assistance from outside starts to reach the disaster area.
    • The needed supplies will include food , blankets , clothings , shelter , sanitary engineering Equipment & construction material.
    • Four principal components in managing humanitarian supplies:
    • a) Acquisition of supplies b)Transportation
    • c)Storage D) Distribution
  • 27.  
  • 28. Epidemiological surveillance & Disease Control
    • Disasters can increase the transmission of Communicable diseases by
    • Overcrowding & poor sanitation
    • Population displacement
    • Contaminated water supply
    • Disruption of routine control programmes
    • Breeding of vectors
    • Displacement of domestic & wild animals who carry zoonoses e.g. Leptospirosis in Orissa cyclone
  • 29. After Disaster
    • There may be
    • Gastroenteritis outbreak
    • Acute respiratory infections
    • Vector Borne diseases
    • Zoonoses
  • 30. Epidemiological surveillance & Disease Control……………….
    • Implement all public health measure as soon as possible
    • Organize a reliable disease reporting system to identify outbreaks and to promptly initiate disease control measures
    • Investigate rapidly
  • 31. Rehabilitation
    • It starts from very first moment of disaster.
    • Water supply – increase residual chlorine level to about 0.2-0.5mg per litre.
    • Keep safe the water resources by fencing & restricting access of animals.
    • Prevent every possible means of contamination
  • 32.
    • Food safety personal hygiene & kitchen sanitation must be ensured.
    • Basic Sanitation & personal Hygiene Safe excreta disposal should be ensured.
    • Vector Control must be Intensified.
  • 33. Disaster Preparedness
    • Adopting standards & regulations
    • Organize communication, information & warning symptoms
  • 34.  
  • 35.  
  • 36.  
  • 37. SAARC Disaster Committee
  • 38.  
  • 39.  
  • 40. Thanks…….