Indonesia haze

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  • ASEAN can use better governance to combat natural/man made disasters. there r tons of info offered free on the internet. now is the time to prepare for next year's possible HAZE. need to set up procedures to identify, monitor and process not only info but also action plans BEFORE the haze or other disasters get out of hand and stand by for action at all times.

    depoliticization of the whole process is necessary. create a sphere of open boundaries in affected regions so that aids can infiltrate areas of concern without any political interference.

    perhaps, this is one further step, beyond trade ties towards strengthening relationship within ASEAN. v must look beyond Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia and find solutions of this genre within ASEAN.
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  • \nForest fires and haze have become an annual problem for Indonesia. During the dry season, forest fires always occur, especially in Sumatra and Kalimantan. Haze covers the sky; causes problems for the transportation sector; reduces economic activities; and stimulates health problems. \nWhat do I mean my transboundary? \nDo you know where is this picture taken? \nOf course it is not taken in Indonesia. Actually it was taken in Malaysia. \n
  • \nThe term transboundary has only recently come into use for resource development and management planning. The term refers to the movement of physical and biological resources or of impacts associated with these resources, across political boundaries. For the most part, and certainly from the perspective of the Mekong River Commission, the boundary in question refers to international borders. For the most part, and certainly from the perspective of the Mekong River Commission, the boundary in question refers to international borders. \n\nhttp://www.cbd.int/programmes/areas/water/toolkit/html/1.11.2_description_transboundary.html\n
  • What is Transboundary Pollution?\nTransboundary pollution is the pollution that originates in one country but is able to cause damage in another country’s environment, by crossing borders through pathways like water or air. Pollution can be transported across hundreds and even thousands of kilometers. The incredible distances that pollution can spread means that it is not contained within the boundaries of any single nation. This is why it is called ‘Transboundary Pollution’. One of the problems with transboundary pollution is that can carry pollution away from a heavy emitter and deposit it onto a nation whose emissions are relatively low. Another problem with transboundary pollution relates to the quote above. Due to the fact that ‘All things connect’, the heavy pollution that is evident in the developed world also becomes evident in remote areas. For an example of how transboundary pollution becomes visible in a remote area like the Arctic, see the Arctic Haze fact sheet.\nwww.safewater.org\n
  • What is Transboundary Pollution?\nTransboundary pollution is the pollution that originates in one country but is able to cause damage in another country’s environment, by crossing borders through pathways like water or air. Pollution can be transported across hundreds and even thousands of kilometers. The incredible distances that pollution can spread means that it is not contained within the boundaries of any single nation. This is why it is called ‘Transboundary Pollution’. One of the problems with transboundary pollution is that can carry pollution away from a heavy emitter and deposit it onto a nation whose emissions are relatively low. Another problem with transboundary pollution relates to the quote above. Due to the fact that ‘All things connect’, the heavy pollution that is evident in the developed world also becomes evident in remote areas. For an example of how transboundary pollution becomes visible in a remote area like the Arctic, see the Arctic Haze fact sheet.\nwww.safewater.org\n
  • What is Transboundary Pollution?\nTransboundary pollution is the pollution that originates in one country but is able to cause damage in another country’s environment, by crossing borders through pathways like water or air. Pollution can be transported across hundreds and even thousands of kilometers. The incredible distances that pollution can spread means that it is not contained within the boundaries of any single nation. This is why it is called ‘Transboundary Pollution’. One of the problems with transboundary pollution is that can carry pollution away from a heavy emitter and deposit it onto a nation whose emissions are relatively low. Another problem with transboundary pollution relates to the quote above. Due to the fact that ‘All things connect’, the heavy pollution that is evident in the developed world also becomes evident in remote areas. For an example of how transboundary pollution becomes visible in a remote area like the Arctic, see the Arctic Haze fact sheet.\nwww.safewater.org\n
  • Answers might be ‘smoke, pollution, blur, unclarity, burning, grey, fire’\nHaze refers to the accumulation of dust, smoke and other pollutant particles in the air which leads to the unclarity of the atmosphere, lower visibility level and detrimental effects on the human body.\nThe definition of haze by thinkquest2007 is that ....\n\n
  • Answers might be ‘smoke, pollution, blur, unclarity, burning, grey, fire’\nHaze refers to the accumulation of dust, smoke and other pollutant particles in the air which leads to the unclarity of the atmosphere, lower visibility level and detrimental effects on the human body.\nThe definition of haze by thinkquest2007 is that ....\n\n
  • \nadd a map of Indenesia, Malaysia in the study guide for students to mark \n http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/02/20/forest-fires-hit-jambi-n-sumatra-and-riau.html\nhttp://www.theresilientearth.com/?q=content/draining-swamps-fuel-autos\n
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  • Forest fires and haze have become an annual problem for Indonesia. During the dry season, forest fires always occur, especially in Sumatra and Kalimantan. Haze covers the sky; causes problems for the transportation sector; reduces economic activities; and stimulates health problems. The problem has not only become a domestic affair but also affects Indonesia’s reputation in other countries. Singapore and Malaysia are two of the most adversely affected foreign countries due to the smog generated from the forest fires.\n
  • We might still remember how the Malaysian government sent hundreds of fire squads, called “Bomba”, to help Indonesia to fight forest fires in 1997. The forest fire tragedy that year was one of the worst forest fires in Indonesian history, in which the smog even reached Thailand and the Philippines. \nFrom October through November 1997, fires in Indonesia and the resulting haze made front-page news around the world as the haze spread as far the Philippines to the north, Sri Lanka to the west, and northern Australia to the south. Fires burned thousands of squares miles of rainforest, plantations, conversion forest, and scrubland in Kalimantan, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea, Bali, Lombock, and Sarawak of Malaysia.\n
  • We might still remember how the Malaysian government sent hundreds of fire squads, called “Bomba”, to help Indonesia to fight forest fires in 1997. The forest fire tragedy that year was one of the worst forest fires in Indonesian history, in which the smog even reached Thailand and the Philippines. \nFrom October through November 1997, fires in Indonesia and the resulting haze made front-page news around the world as the haze spread as far the Philippines to the north, Sri Lanka to the west, and northern Australia to the south. Fires burned thousands of squares miles of rainforest, plantations, conversion forest, and scrubland in Kalimantan, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea, Bali, Lombock, and Sarawak of Malaysia.\n
  • Sulfides, nitrous oxides, and ash released by burning, combined with the industrial pollution and exhaust from cities, formed choking haze that raised pollution levels to previously unrecorded heights. The Air Pollution Index exceeded 800 (a day's exposure to an API of 200-300 is the equivalent to smoking 20 cigarettes) in Kuching, Malaysia, and set record highs in Singapore and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. While over 200,000 were hospitalized with ailments including heart and respiratory disorders, severe nosebleeds, and eye irritation, there is greater concern for the long- term health effects on the more than 70 million people in six countries affected by the haze. Health officials worry that the smog produced by the fires may lead to an increase in heart, lung, brain, eye, and skin disorders over the next decade.\n
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  • \nPeat is a brown, soil-like material characteristic of boggy, acid ground, consisting of partly decomposed vegetable matter. It is the first stage of transformation of plant matter into coal. \nLarge areas of organic wetland (peat) soils are currently drained for agriculture. This not only destroys the habitat of many species, but heavily trigger climate change. As a result of peat drainage, the organic carbon that was built up over thousands of years and is normally under water, is suddenly exposed to the air. It decomposes and turns into carbon dioxide (CO2), which is released into the atmosphere. Peat fires cause the same process and in addition create enormous clouds of smoke that cross international borders, such as happen every year in Southeast Asia.\nIn this picture, Peatland is drained to make way for the cultivation of oil palms in Central Kalimantan. Indonesia is home to the world’s largest peatland areas. Scientists have warned that peatland reclamation could increase the release of carbon emissions stored in its area, leading to the worsening of global warming.\n\nhttp://www.herinst.org/wingecarribee/peatlands/what.html\n\n
  • In Indonesia, fire serves as a cheap and fast method of land clearing. Traditionally, “slash and burn” agriculture has been practiced by farmers in many places in Indonesia for generations. A study conducted in West Kalimantan showed that the application of slash and burn agriculture, in combination with land rotation, is ecologically sustainable and does not degrade soil conditions (Kleinmann et al., 1996). However, it requires that slash and burn techniques only involve a small number of farmers across relatively wide areas, so there is sufficient time for the ecosystem to recover. As agricultural practices tend to be more settled and agricultural areas are more limited, the application of slash and burn agriculture should be stopped because it is ecologically unfeasible.The problem is that the use of fire as a land clearing method is also adopted by large plantation companies and forest-plantation management. The main reason is, of course, to reduce production costs. \n
  • Remember, the answers can both be positive and negative\n
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  • They are the authoritarian force that can intervene when necessary. They can pass laws and conduct checks. They have the authority to implement policies and punishments like fines and jail terms.\n\n\n
  • They are the authoritarian force that can intervene when necessary. They can pass laws and conduct checks. They have the authority to implement policies and punishments like fines and jail terms.\n\n\n
  • They are the authoritarian force that can intervene when necessary. They can pass laws and conduct checks. They have the authority to implement policies and punishments like fines and jail terms.\n\n\n
  • They are the authoritarian force that can intervene when necessary. They can pass laws and conduct checks. They have the authority to implement policies and punishments like fines and jail terms.\n\n\n
  • They are the authoritarian force that can intervene when necessary. They can pass laws and conduct checks. They have the authority to implement policies and punishments like fines and jail terms.\n\n\n
  • They are the authoritarian force that can intervene when necessary. They can pass laws and conduct checks. They have the authority to implement policies and punishments like fines and jail terms.\n\n\n
  • They are the authoritarian force that can intervene when necessary. They can pass laws and conduct checks. They have the authority to implement policies and punishments like fines and jail terms.\n\n\n
  • Tourists:They form the tourism industry which the affected countries may rely on for revenue,\nPopulation: They form the country as employers and employees\n\nTourists:They may aviod the affected countries, hitting the tourism industy hard.\nPopulation:The haze may cause illness or respiratory difficulties for some/most of the population, depending on the situation.\n\n
  • Tourists:They form the tourism industry which the affected countries may rely on for revenue,\nPopulation: They form the country as employers and employees\n\nTourists:They may aviod the affected countries, hitting the tourism industy hard.\nPopulation:The haze may cause illness or respiratory difficulties for some/most of the population, depending on the situation.\n\n
  • Tourists:They form the tourism industry which the affected countries may rely on for revenue,\nPopulation: They form the country as employers and employees\n\nTourists:They may aviod the affected countries, hitting the tourism industy hard.\nPopulation:The haze may cause illness or respiratory difficulties for some/most of the population, depending on the situation.\n\n
  • Tourists:They form the tourism industry which the affected countries may rely on for revenue,\nPopulation: They form the country as employers and employees\n\nTourists:They may aviod the affected countries, hitting the tourism industy hard.\nPopulation:The haze may cause illness or respiratory difficulties for some/most of the population, depending on the situation.\n\n
  • Tourists:They form the tourism industry which the affected countries may rely on for revenue,\nPopulation: They form the country as employers and employees\n\nTourists:They may aviod the affected countries, hitting the tourism industy hard.\nPopulation:The haze may cause illness or respiratory difficulties for some/most of the population, depending on the situation.\n\n
  • Tourists:They form the tourism industry which the affected countries may rely on for revenue,\nPopulation: They form the country as employers and employees\n\nTourists:They may aviod the affected countries, hitting the tourism industy hard.\nPopulation:The haze may cause illness or respiratory difficulties for some/most of the population, depending on the situation.\n\n
  • They are the cause of the fires. Due to their burning, haze is generated. Flora and fauna are also lost.\n\n\n
  • They are the cause of the fires. Due to their burning, haze is generated. Flora and fauna are also lost.\n\n\n
  • They are the cause of the fires. Due to their burning, haze is generated. Flora and fauna are also lost.\n\n\n
  • They are the cause of the fires. Due to their burning, haze is generated. Flora and fauna are also lost.\n\n\n
  • They are the cause of the fires. Due to their burning, haze is generated. Flora and fauna are also lost.\n\n\n
  • They are the cause of the fires. Due to their burning, haze is generated. Flora and fauna are also lost.\n\n\n
  • They are the cause of the fires. Due to their burning, haze is generated. Flora and fauna are also lost.\n\n\n
  • They are the cause of the fires. Due to their burning, haze is generated. Flora and fauna are also lost.\n\n\n
  • They are the cause of the fires. Due to their burning, haze is generated. Flora and fauna are also lost.\n\n\n
  • They are the cause of the fires. Due to their burning, haze is generated. Flora and fauna are also lost.\n\n\n
  • They are the cause of the fires. Due to their burning, haze is generated. Flora and fauna are also lost.\n
  • Pollution increases which may result in an increase in greenhouse gases. This, in turn, causes global warming and climate change.\nWhen the forests are burnt, ecologies and habitats are destroyed. Flora are burnt or choked by the haze. The fauna also suffer from the loss of food and habitat.\n\n
  • Population with weak constitution may suffer from illness related to the haze or respiratory difficulties.\nSome symptoms include:\n-  Red/Sore eyes \n-  Sore throat \n-  Rashes \n-  Respiratory difficulties \n\n
  • Losses are incurred through loss of visibility or tourism.\nSmaller businesses also suffer as most people avoid going outdoors. Also, retailers will lose out due to low sales rate.\nLosses for 1997 (SEA): USD 9 Billion\n\n
  • Tourists are discouraged from visiting the affected countries. This would affect the tourism industry and hence the economic aspect too.\n\n
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  • Indonesia haze

    1. 1. A Hazy Situation Transboundary Issue of Southeast Asia
    2. 2. What is transboundary issue? http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/env/eia/images/practical_guide/transp.jpg
    3. 3. What is transboundary issue?recently used for resourcedevelopment and managementplanningrefers to the movement ofphysical and biological resourcesor of impacts associated withthese resourcesacross political boundaries http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/env/eia/images/practical_guide/transp.jpg
    4. 4. Transboundary Pollution http://pgislandboy.blogspot.com/2009/08/those-hazy-days-cough.html
    5. 5. Transboundary PollutionPollution that originates in onecountry but is able to causedamage in another country’senvironment http://pgislandboy.blogspot.com/2009/08/those-hazy-days-cough.html
    6. 6. Transboundary PollutionPollution that originates in onecountry but is able to causedamage in another country’senvironmentby crossing borders through wateror air http://pgislandboy.blogspot.com/2009/08/those-hazy-days-cough.html
    7. 7. Transboundary PollutionPollution that originates in onecountry but is able to causedamage in another country’senvironmentby crossing borders through wateror airfrom a heavy emitter and depositit on a lower emission country http://pgislandboy.blogspot.com/2009/08/those-hazy-days-cough.html
    8. 8. What is ‘Haze’? http://nigeldickinson.photoshelter.com/image/I0000yriOjabJ1Oo
    9. 9. What is ‘Haze’?What do you associate with theword ‘haze’? http://nigeldickinson.photoshelter.com/image/I0000yriOjabJ1Oo
    10. 10. What is ‘Haze’?What do you associate with theword ‘haze’?The accumulation of dust,smoke and other pollutantparticles in the air which leadsto the unclarity of theatmosphere, lower visibilitylevel and detrimental effects onthe human body http://nigeldickinson.photoshelter.com/image/I0000yriOjabJ1Oo
    11. 11. News: ASEAN pressures Indonesia Haze flowing from Indonesia over the Strait of Mallacca to Malaysia Read a news article Answer the questions in the Study Guide Work in pairs with your neighbor http://www.xes.cx/pics-misc/haze-5.JPG
    12. 12. News: S’pore offers Indonesia help The sun, visible through the haze from the 2006 bush and forest fires Read a news article Answer the questions in the Study Guide Work in pairs with your neighbor http://www.cintaabadi.com/news-flash/112-sumatera-deforesationmy-poor-sumatera-forest-part-5.html
    13. 13. Answer the Questions http://newshopper.sulekha.com/indonesia-forest-fire_photo_915587.htm
    14. 14. Answer the QuestionsWhat is ASEAN?What was the basis for thenews article?What countries took part inthe meeting?Where was the meeting held?Why did only these countriesjoin the meeting? http://newshopper.sulekha.com/indonesia-forest-fire_photo_915587.htm
    15. 15. Answer the questions http://img.timeinc.net/time/asia/magazine/2007/0521/po#ution_0521.jpg
    16. 16. Answer the questionsWhat was the haze situation in aprevious decade?What caused the haze according tothe news?Why did Indonesia not ratify theASEAN Agreement onTransboundary Haze Pollution?What were the solutions to reducehaze suggested in the news? http://img.timeinc.net/time/asia/magazine/2007/0521/po#ution_0521.jpg
    17. 17. Answer the questions http://www.siiaonline.org/?q=events/singapores-efforts-transboundary-haze-prevention
    18. 18. Answer the questionsWhat was the help offered bySingapore?What is the event that may beaffected by the haze?How was Malaysia affected bythe haze?Why did forest fires occurannually in Indonesia? http://www.siiaonline.org/?q=events/singapores-efforts-transboundary-haze-prevention
    19. 19. Indonesia’s Forest Fire & Haze
    20. 20. Indonesia’s Forest Fire & Hazefire occurs in dry seasonannuallyesp. Sumatra and Kalimantantransportation sector, economicactivities, health problemstransboundary issue, i.e.Singapore and Malaysia
    21. 21. The Worst Fire 1997 Uncontrolled forest fires sprang up all over Indonesia in late 1997 and early 1998, especially on the islands of Sumatra and Borneo. This smoky fire occured in Borneos East Kalimantan province. http://media-3.web.britannica.com/eb-media/96/23896-004-32D156FE.gif
    22. 22. The Worst Fire 1997 Uncontrolled forest fires sprang up all over Indonesia in late 1997 and early 1998, especially on the islands of Sumatra and Borneo. This smoky fire occured in Borneos East Kalimantan province. http://media-3.web.britannica.com/eb-media/96/23896-004-32D156FE.gif
    23. 23. The Worst Fire 1997October - November 1997haze spread to Philippines, Sri Lanka,Northern Australiathousands of square miles ofrainforest, plantation, forest,scrublandKalimantan, Sumatra, Sulawesi, IraianJaya, Papua New Guinea, Bali, Uncontrolled forest fires sprang up all over Indonesia in late 1997 and early 1998, especially on theLombock, Sarawak (Malaysia) islands of Sumatra and Borneo. This smoky fire occured in Borneos East Kalimantan province. http://media-3.web.britannica.com/eb-media/96/23896-004-32D156FE.gif
    24. 24. Indonesia’s worst fire 1997 http://english.people.com.cn/200508/11/images/0810_C18.jpg
    25. 25. Indonesia’s worst fire 1997Unrecorded height of sulfides, nitrousoxides, ash, industrial pollutionAir Pollution Index exceeded 800API of 200-300 = 20 cigarettes200,000 hospitalized with heart &respiratory diseases, severenosebleeds, eye irritationlong term health effect on 70 million http://english.people.com.cn/200508/11/images/0810_C18.jpgpeople in 6 countries
    26. 26. How does fire threaten the world?
    27. 27. How does fire threaten the world? Watch the video clip In pair, answer the following questions Why do people burn the land? How would deforestation threaten way of life of Indonesian? According to Greenpeace, how would the drying and burning of peatland affect the environment?
    28. 28. Watch this ClipActivists Say ForestFires in IndonesiaThreaten the Worldhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WoHRvfqGLnc
    29. 29. Answer the questions
    30. 30. Answer the questionsWhy do people burn the land?How would deforestation threaten the way of life of anIndonesian?According to G reenpeace, how would the drying andburning of peatland affect the environment?
    31. 31. What is Peatland? http://cempaka-nature.blogspot.com/2009/03/carbon-emissions-may-cost-ri-dearly.html
    32. 32. What is Peatland?a brown, soil-like materialcharacteristic of boggy, acid ground,consisting of partly decomposedvegetable matterorganic carbon turns into carbondioxideIndonesia - the world’s largest peatlandareasincrease the release of carbon http://cempaka-nature.blogspot.com/2009/03/carbon-emissions-may-cost-ri-dearly.htmlemissions
    33. 33. What caused fire? http://www.mongabay.com/images/indonesia/kalimantan/kali9753.JPG
    34. 34. What caused fire?Agricultural sectorSlash and Burn to clear the landfor agriculturelarge plantation companies andforest plantation managementalso use fire to clear the landreduce production cost http://www.mongabay.com/images/indonesia/kalimantan/kali9753.JPG
    35. 35. Who will be involved/affected?
    36. 36. Who will be involved/affected? Look at your study guide and try to answer the questions with your partner.
    37. 37. Who are involved?
    38. 38. Who are involved?Government
    39. 39. Who are involved?Government Tourist/ Population
    40. 40. Who are involved?Government Tourist/ Population Farmers
    41. 41. Who are involved?Government Tourist/ Population Farmers Businessmen
    42. 42. Government
    43. 43. GovernmentHow are they involved?
    44. 44. GovernmentHow are they involved?The authoritarian forcethat can intervene whennecessary
    45. 45. GovernmentHow are they involved?The authoritarian forcethat can intervene whennecessary
    46. 46. GovernmentHow are they involved?The authoritarian forcethat can intervene whennecessary
    47. 47. GovernmentHow are they involved? What is/are their impact(s) on the situation?The authoritarian forcethat can intervene whennecessary
    48. 48. GovernmentHow are they involved? What is/are their impact(s) on the situation?The authoritarian forcethat can intervene when pass laws and conductnecessary check
    49. 49. GovernmentHow are they involved? What is/are their impact(s) on the situation?The authoritarian forcethat can intervene when pass laws and conductnecessary check have authority to implement policies and punishments (i.e. fines, jail)
    50. 50. Tourist/ Population
    51. 51. Tourist/ PopulationHow are they involved?
    52. 52. Tourist/ PopulationHow are they involved?Tourists form tourismindustry and the affectedcountries may rely on forrevenue
    53. 53. Tourist/ PopulationHow are they involved?Tourists form tourismindustry and the affectedcountries may rely on forrevenuePopulation : employers,employees
    54. 54. Tourist/ PopulationHow are they involved? What is/are their impact(s) on the situation?Tourists form tourismindustry and the affectedcountries may rely on forrevenuePopulation : employers,employees
    55. 55. Tourist/ PopulationHow are they involved? What is/are their impact(s) on the situation?Tourists form tourismindustry and the affected Tourists: avoid the affectedcountries may rely on for countries, lost revenuerevenuePopulation : employers,employees
    56. 56. Tourist/ PopulationHow are they involved? What is/are their impact(s) on the situation?Tourists form tourismindustry and the affected Tourists: avoid the affectedcountries may rely on for countries, lost revenuerevenue Population: haze causesPopulation : employers, illness, respiratoryemployees difficulties for population
    57. 57. Farmers
    58. 58. FarmersHow are they involved/affected?
    59. 59. FarmersHow are they involved/affected?cause of the fires
    60. 60. FarmersHow are they involved/affected?cause of the fires
    61. 61. FarmersHow are they involved/affected?cause of the fires
    62. 62. FarmersHow are they involved/affected?cause of the fires
    63. 63. FarmersHow are they involved/ What is/are their impact(s)affected? on the situation?cause of the fires
    64. 64. FarmersHow are they involved/ What is/are their impact(s)affected? on the situation?cause of the fires Due to their burning, haze is generated
    65. 65. FarmersHow are they involved/ What is/are their impact(s)affected? on the situation?cause of the fires Due to their burning, haze is generated Flora and fauna are also lost
    66. 66. FarmersHow are they involved/ What is/are their impact(s)affected? on the situation?cause of the fires Due to their burning, haze is generated Flora and fauna are also lost
    67. 67. FarmersHow are they involved/ What is/are their impact(s)affected? on the situation?cause of the fires Due to their burning, haze is generated Flora and fauna are also lost
    68. 68. Businessmen
    69. 69. BusinessmenHow are they involved/ What is/are their impact(s)affected? on the situation?cause of the fire Due to their burning, haze is generated. Flora and fauna are also lost.
    70. 70. Environmental Impacts
    71. 71. Environmental ImpactsPollution increase = greenhousegases increasecauses global warming &climate changeecologies & habitat aredestroyedFlora burnt, fauna loses foodand habitat
    72. 72. Health Impacts
    73. 73. Health ImpactsThe weak suffer from illnessrelated to haze andrespiratory system Red/sore eyes Sore throat Rashes Respiratory difficulties
    74. 74. Economic Impacts
    75. 75. Economic ImpactsIncurred through loss ofvisibility or tourismpeople avoid going outdoorsmall business suffer1997 losses for USD 9 billion
    76. 76. Tourism Impact
    77. 77. Tourism Impactdiscouraged from visitingthe affected countriesaffect tourism and economy
    78. 78. Exercise on Study GuideComplete the crossword and findout how they can protectthemselvesFind the word given in thechecklist and then fill in theblanks
    79. 79. Referenceshttp://rainforests.mongabay.com/08indo_fires.htmhttp://www.cbd.int/programmes/areas/water/toolkit/html/1.11.2_description_transboundary.htmlwww.safewater.orghttp://www.mongabay.com/images/indonesia/kalimantan/kali9753.JPGhttp://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/02/20/forest-fires-hit-jambi-n-sumatra-and-riau.htmlhttp://www.theresilientearth.com/?q=content/draining-swamps-fuel-autoshttp://english.people.com.cn/200508/11/images/0810_C18.jpg http://media-3.web.britannica.com/eb-media/96/23896-004-32D156FE.gif

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