JAPAN Cultural Introduction and Scope of Human Trafficking◆ Polaris Project Japan www.PolarisProject.jp Outreach website for teens: www.Pol214.com www.facebook.com/PolarisJapan Phone：050-3496-7615 FAX：020-4669-6933
Presentation OverviewI. Japanese Historical and Cultural BackgroundII. The Current Trafficking SituationIII. International Criticism and ResponseIV.About Polaris Project JapanV. Final Thoughts and Conclusions
The Japanese Sex Industry Historical and Cultural Roots
Japanese Cultural Concepts• Strong hierarchical cultural traditions• Strong patriarchal cultural traditions• Honne (本音) vs. Tatemae (建前)• Relatively weak civic participation• Personal affairs stay very private
Historical Background• Long history of institutionalized prostitution• Legal and social acceptance (despite criticism)• The Recreation and Amusement Association (Aug. ‘45)• Replaced by red light districts (Jan. ‘46)• Prostitution banned in 1956, but the ban’s language is weak• De facto prostitution con- tinues to this day A scene from Kenji Mizoguchi’s 1956 film “The Red Light District”
Global Human Trafficking Market Number of Victims: 21 million (ILO, 2012)80% are female/ 50% are children (US State Dept) Profit: 3 trillion yen each year (ILO)
Human Trafficking in Japan• Sexual exploitation: East, Southeast Asia, Eastern Europe, Russia, and Latin America• Labor exploitation: male and female migrant workers from China, Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, and other Asian countries.• The majority of officially identified victims are foreign women migrating willingly to Japan seeking work, but who are later subjected to debts of up to $50,000.• A significant number of Japanese women and girls have also been reported as sex trafficking victims.• Traffickers are increasingly targeting Japanese women and girls for coerced exploitation in pornography and the sex industry.• Organized crime syndicates (the Yakuza) play a significant role in trafficking.• Japanese men continue to be a significant source of demand for child sex tourism in Southeast Asia.
The Official* Human Trafficking Numbers: 539 human trafficking cases (2001-2011) 613 Victims 483 Persons Arrested Nationality of the Victims Thai: 214 Filipino: 162 Indonesian: 76 Colombian: 58 *For reasons explained later, these official figures represent just glimpse of the real problem
Japan‟s Sex Industry The market is worth 4 - 10 trillion yen (about 50 – 125 billion U.S. dollars) Or 1 – 2% of Japan‟s total GDP. Delivery Health = each client pays 23,000 per visit One woman has on average 4 clients a day, 6 days a week = 552,000/weekThe trafficker earns 2,760,000 for per week. = 132,480,000/year × 20,000 establishments（2004） The industry is worth approximately 300 billion yen per year Source: Asia Wall Street Journal
Delivery Health “dates” can be arranged online via computer or smartphone.
Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Minors Child prostitution:5 000 cases or more of persons detained as a result of child prostitution (2011) Child pornography 1,455 cases * （number of persons arrested＝1,016） Charges of supplying, manufacturing, distribution (2009) 105 of the 638(16％) cases were younger than elementary School age. The youngest victim is 3 y.o.Japan, along with Russia are among the two G8 countries that does not outlaw "simple possession" for collecting images for personal use.
Global Criticism Japan criticized in reports by: Human Rights WatchInternational Labor Organization (ILO) U.S. Department of State United Nations
U.S. Department of State TIP Report Country rankings Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 “The Government of Japan does Does not not fully comply with the Fully complies Does not with minimum comply with comply with minimum standards for theDefinition minimum standards to minimum protect standards to standards and elimination of trafficking … protect victims, trafficking but making not making corruption remains a serious victims effort some efforts concern in the large •S Korea •Japan •Iran entertainment industry in •Taiwan •Portugal •Zimbabwe •USA •South Africa •Sudan Japan…[it] has no dedicatedCountries •UK •Cambodia •Burma •Canada •Burkina Faso •Congo (DRC) shelters for trafficking victims •France •Mexico •Cuba or clear sheltering resources for •Germany •Paraguay •Eritrea •Australia •Hong Kong •N Korea male victims…” •… •… •… Trafficking in Persons Report 2012 on Japan - U.S. Department of StateSource: US State Department “Trafficking in Persons Report 2010”
The Japanese Government’s Response• After the Japanese were designated a Tier 2 country for the first time in 2001, the government was embarrassed and tried to address the criticism.• They enacted an “Action Plan” in 2004 designed to increase awareness among law enforcement and customs officers, and treat victims as victims rather than violators of immigration law• The government response has been characterized as insufficient to address the scale of the problem.• No comprehensive anti-trafficking law has been passed to this day, and Japan remains a Tier 2 country even now, eleven years later.
Polaris Project JapanOur Work Protecting Victims
A Brief History of PPJ• Polaris Project was founded in the U.S. in 2002• Polaris Project Japan was founded in September 2004 by Shihoko Fujiwara, a former fellow with Polaris Project• In 2005, we established the first national trafficking consultation hotline in Japan• The hotline receives hundreds of calls every year, and PPJ has provided consultations and support for hundreds of victims• We have also trained many law enforcement officers, customs officials, and social workers, and continue to provide educational lectures to all kinds of audiences across the country and abroad
Victim Support Raise Victim awarenessOutreach among police and social workers
The State of Trafficking in Japan The Numbers (Polaris Project’s 2011 Data)- Since its inception in 2005, our hotline has provided over 2,500 consultations- We have provided over 130 people with direct support or connected them with the appropriate organization- In 2011, we offered 381 consultations, including 33 cases involving victims of sex trafficking (Number of Consultations by Prefecture)
Trafficking in Japan – A Victim’s Voice→ A Korean woman in her early 20’s Case 1: Korean Female→ This case came to Polaris via acall from an acquaintance ratherthan from the victim herself→She was resold by a “broker” andforced into prostitution, unaware thatshe was the victim of a crime “My friend is being abused by her ‘employer,’→She used to be a social worker and it’s my fault. I wanthelping battered women in Korea,then she decided to go to Japan to speak with a lawyer.“hoping eventually to get intoJapanese university…
Cases in which Polaris Project has been involved Victim Case2: 14 year-old Japanese girl“I was able to get out of the situation butdon„t have anywhere to go, and I never Fourteen year oldfeel good about things. When I getpropositioned or when I have sex I feel Japanese girl gotthat my body is worthless and start cryingwithout reason.” She is emotionally into a confrontationrestless. We meet periodically and act asa confidant and give her the necessary with playmates when shesupport she needs was told she had a "bad attitude" and was coerced into prostitution.
Trafficking in Japan – A Victim’s Voice→ This case was reported by an Case 3:American soldier in Yamaguchi-ken Filipino Female→She was invited to come to Japanby her friend in Nagano, but thenwas transferred to Yamaguchi andcharged with a 400,000 yen “I entered“transfer fine”. Japan on an Entertainer Visa→She temporarily returned to thePhillippines, but then was forced into and I shouldanother six month contract in Japan. have reached outShe didn’t know what to do. to an NGO sooner.“
Case 4:Korean Female forced to 韓国のＮＧＯからの緊急支work in a sex club. 援依頼 → By way of a broker, she entered Japan on a tourist visa and was“My condition was so forced into work.bad I could barely stand, → Due to fear of her abusers and insufficient resources for victims,let alone go to the hospital. she was unable to get help fromI thought I might end up the police.dead, so I called an → Before her departure, Polaris provided medical care, access toorganization that protects an emergency shelter, and helpedKorean women her return home.and I was connectedwith Polaris Japan.”
How victims are lured into Japan‟s sex tradeForeign Women recruited in their own country /Domestic victimsin Japan- Debt bondage by loan sharks-Tricked by deceptive advertisements in papers-Once you are in the industry, it is hard to get out - Stigma and resignation - “Support structure” also exploits women: Clothing store, pharmacy, clinics, that traffickers work withWomen recruited once they are in Japan:- Peer pressure and persistent recruitment at language school,etc.• Traffickers use isolation and cultural barriers to force women to follow the “rules”
ConclusionsFinal Thoughts and LessonsFinal Thoughts and
Additional Reference：The State of Japanese Trafficking Since 2005• The U.S. State Department designated Japan a “Watch List” country in 2004. In December, the Japanese government unveiled its “Plan of Action”: – Alter the penal code to make trafficking a crime, enforce more stringent requirements for Entertainer visas, use DV shelters for trafficking victims• The Results – Continued Lack of a Comprehensive Trafficking Law and Insufficient Victim Support • Without a real protection system in place, victims are hesitant to raise their voices, seeing little choice but to bide their time and hope to make it back home someday • The penal code, the Anti-Prostitution Law, the Employment Security Act, the Child Welfare Law, and immigration law are ostensibly aimed at these problems, but they are not often used to prosecute human trafficking cases – Effective prosecution of cases is difficult • Evidence of forced prostitution, debt, and abuse is often destroyed by the perpetrator – Discrimination, misunderstanding, and a lack of public awareness makes it harder to locate victims • The state of foreign women working in the sex industry is often poorly understood (by police and citizens alike) • There is a general misconception about people involved in the sex industry
Some reasons why human trafficking still persists Human trafficking Trafficking is an often goes underground, unidentified and hidden industry involves many complex issues There are few There is little victims who take public awareness legal action about the problemagainst traffickers There areinadequate human A lack of resources to informationtackle the problem
Polaris has trained over 5,000 law enforcement officers and social workers. This number includes members of: the Ministry of ForeignAffairs, the Ministry of Justice, Cabinet Offices, Tokyo MetropolitanOffice of Education, the Bureau of Immigration, Tokyo Metropolitan Office for Youth Affairs, child welfare centers and others.
Suggestion from PPJCreate Comprehensive Anti-trafficking policy Train all police officers, immigration officers as well as social service providers on how to identify trafficking Start National Human Trafficking hotline Comprehensive Victim Protection Medical, Legal support, shelter, counseling as well as providing legal status for the survivors of trafficking for work Polaris Project Japan and Solidarity Network With Migrants Japan, 20th June 2012
AKARI Project Because of the lack of policy, PPJ’s work is solely supported by your support.Join Polaris AKARI Project to support our hotline and services for victims of trafficking. See more info from our HP /brochure