Investigation of Short Sea Shipping EU andTurkish Policy, Service and Lines in TurkeyCpt. A.Tuğsan İŞİAÇIK ÇOLAK¹- Assis. Prof. Dr. Sevilay CAN²¹Istanbul Technicial University Maritime Faculty, Turkey, firstname.lastname@example.org²Istanbul Technicial University Maritime Faculty, Turkey, email@example.com
AGENDA1. Definition and Modes of Transportation2. Sea Transportation and Its Advantages3. Short Sea Shipping4. EU Short Sea Shipping Policy5. Turkish Short Sea Shipping Policy - Turkish Short Sea Shipping Lines - Brief History of a Successful RORO Company in Turkey6. Conclusion
1. Definition and Modes of Transportation • Transportation is the movement of people, animals and goods from one location to another. Transportation is the main source of country economy and development(1)…
Modes of Transportation• Road transportation• Rail transportation• Sea transportation• Air transportation• Intermodal transportation Each transportation mode has key operational and commercial advantages and properties.(2)
• Sea Transportation: Any movement of goods and/or passengers using seagoing vessels on voyages which are undertaken wholly or partly at sea.(3) SHIPPING DENSITY DATAPicture from: http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch3en/conc3en/maritimedomains.html
Why Maritime Transportation?First, Low Cost Way for Transport• Sea transportation is -14 times cheaper than the air, -7 times cheaper than the land transport and -3.5 times cheaper than the railway carriage (2).
Freight Transport Costs in Centsper Ton-MileRef: R. Ballou (1998) Business Logistics Management, 4th Edition, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
2. Sea Transportation andIts AdvantagesThe Advantages of MaritimeTransportation• assuring the quality, speed and security together,• giving less damage to the enviroment than the others• it already exists and does not require on going maintenance,• seas tends to comprise large spacious areas mostly unaffected by traffic congestion• sea transport capacity can be increased, subsentially and speedly, through the addition of more ships or larger ships or faster ships. (4)
3. Short Sea Shipping BASIC TERMINOLOGYMULTI MODAL TRANSPORTCarriage of Goods by at least Two Different Modes of TransportINTERMODAL TRANSPORTUsage Of Two Or More Modes Of Transport Same Loadıng Unit, No HandlıngOf The Goods While Changing Modes Integrated Transport ChainCOMBINED TRANSPORTMeans Of Transport Where One (Passive) Transport Unıt is Carried by Another(Active) Unit Which Provides Traction And Consumes Energy
A New Sea Transportation Concept: Short SeaShipping • The Short Sea Shipping is a mode of passenger and freight transportation among the European ports as well as between these ports and the non-European countries that have coasts to the inland seas at the European borders (4).
• According to this definition Short Sea Shipping includes domestic and international maritime transport, including feeder services, along the coast and to and from the islands, rivers and lakes.• EU member countries and the countries with coasts to the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and Baltic Sea as well as the European Economic Area members Norway and Iceland.
ADVANTAGES OFFERED BY SHORTSEA SHIPPING AS A DERIVATIVE OF COMBINED TRANSPORT
1) A facility providing more flexibilityto users as well as service providers(operators) the ability to mobilize atfaster rates.
2) An environmentally friendly form oftransport. (in harmony with sustainabledevelopment of transport policies)
3) A safe mode of transport.Decreases the probability of anaccident occuring by more than 65%when compared to conventional roadtransport.
4) SSS offers the most reliable service (Just intime delivery)
5) Rationalization and optimization ofservices. (efficiency in operations andminimized operational costs)
6) Minimized depreciation costs of passivetransport units. Savings up to 23% in thewhole transport chain.
7) Reduction in bureaucratic procedures andminimization of documentation.
8) Facilitation of bonus road transportpermits through utilization of combinedtransport facilities by Ministries of Transportof various countries.
9) Balancing traffic among different modes oftransport, thus providing a useful tool toachieve public tolerance towards transport ingeneral.(Contribution to sustainable transport policy)
10) SSS imposes minimal investment andmaintanence costs on Governments.Utilization of “nature made” highways“MOTORWAYS OF THE SEA”
4. EU Short Sea Shipping Policy• For EU Countries, Short Sea Shipping is proposed as an alternative mean of freight movement to reduce the number of trucks that daily congest about 4000 km of road networks and associated social costs which cannot be removed unless huge investments in infrastructure are made at the expense of more social costs.
• Other important factor of short sea shipping is port. It is aimed to have better integrate ports and logistic chain between ports and hinterland. For short sea shipping, the key factor is always door to door transportation.• In 1997 the Commission published a Green Paper about ports.
• With White Paper the concept of Motorways of the sea and for Sea Motorways become part of the trans-European network (Ten-T).• Ten-T is defined as an instrument to construct a European infrastructure network, with long-term goals such as development of the internal market and economic and social cohesion.• In 2003, the Commission proposed a revision of TEN-T which included 29 priority projects implended by 2020
• Also Marco Polo is supported for Motorways of the Sea with based on the same criteria. Aim of Marco Polo project is shifting freight from road to more environmentally non road modes (Ro-La). For national administrations also short sea shipping promotion centers are established.• After COM (2004) 478, second Marco Polo Programme is established. The aim is same; shifting more than 140 billion tonne kilometers of freight off the road but now ,it is more environmentalist to reduce CO2 emissions by 8400 million kg.
• Another project is 2003-2007, The EuroMed Transport Project aims to facilitate cooperation between the 12 Mediterranean Partner Countries with the goal of supporting the development of the future Euro-Mediterranean Free Trade Area and promoting regional economic integration by improving the functioning and the efficiency of the Mediterranean transport system
5. Turkish Short Sea Shipping Policy - Turkish Short SeaShipping Lines - Brief History of a Successful ROROCompany in Turkey 30
• Turkey has 8333 km coastline, 2627 km territorial border, SE Europe, SW Asia, bordering Black Sea, Aegean Sea and Med. Sea. Turkey is gateway from/to Europe, Central Asia, Black Sea, East Med and Gulf. Turkey is candidate of EU also member ship of UN, NATO, European Council, OECD, World Bank and EU Customs Union
86 % of the imports and exports of Turkey was carried by seaways in 2010
33Geographical Distribution of Main Ports in Turkey
Multi-modal Transportation, specially in the Mediterranean basin and inthe Black Sea region has great advantages for Turkey.Ro-Ro transportation, one of the most important and functional mode ofintermodal transportation due to geographical location of our country .After Yugoslavia civil war in 1993, Turkey first started Turkey – Europeanroro line between Istanbul and Trieste.
35International Ro-Ro Routes fromTurkeyFRANSA Trieste UKRAYN A Kırım Novo RUSYA Sochi Marsilya Köstence Poti Toulon ROMANY A GÜR. Tekirdağ ITALY Zonguldak Samsun A Pendik TrabzonRize Ambarlı TÜRKİYE Çeşme Mersin Magosa KKTC Ref: RODER, U.N Ro-Ro
UN RO-RO, is the innovative RO-RO company serving truckers operatingbetween Turkey and Western Europe.UN RO-RO was the winner of the 2005 European Intermodal Association (EIA)Award in “ Best intermodal transport or freight integration service” category.
U.N Ro-Ro Today …• U.N Ro-Ro is the leading Ro-Ro operator between Turkey and Europe with a market share of 34.5%offering a time and cost effective alternative to land transport for international trucking companies ▫ Targets exports to Western European (Germany, Italy, France, UK, Benelux) countries with a total market volume of ~230K units in 2010 ▫ Young and modern fleet of eleven custom-built vessels with an average age of 4.5 years and a total capacity of 39,450 lanemeters (c. 2,550 trailer units) ▫ Long-term access to strategic port locations within Istanbul, Trieste and Mersin U.N Ro-Ro Network Market Share – 2010 YTD (October) Trieste Marseilles Constanţa Land, 53.3% U.N Ro-Ro, Italy Istanbul 34.5% Izmir Mersin UND Deniz, Çeşme, 4.1% 8.1% 1. Market share information based on RODER custom gate statistics
39Modern Ro-Ro Fleet Combined Transport 11 Turkish flagged Ro-Ro vessels Current routes: Average age of fleet 4.5 years (very Istanbul-Trieste modern) Mersin-Trieste Total capacity of 39.450 lanemeters or Istanbul-Toulon 2.550 truck trailers Istanbul-Constanta 350 Turkish employees Approximately 610 sailings per annum Ro-La, tax free fuel station, air connection and port services
For Black Searegular Ro-Ro lines have been established between Northern Black Sea ports Odessa,Yalta, Sivastopol, Novorossiysk, Poti and Turkey‟s Trabzon, Samsun, Zonguldak and Karadeniz Ereğli ports.
International Transportation, Amount of cargo carried from 2003 to 2011 hasbeen increased %50 percent. Ş YOR… DENİ OTOYOL AĞ I GENİ Lİ Z 2003 2011
43 INLAND RORO TRANSPORTAn example of successful operation in our country is the Ro-Ro transportation between the Northern-Southern ports of the Sea of Marmara which is an inland sea of our country.
44By these lines many TIR vehicles have been taken from the highways, andthe traffic density in the crowded cities like İstanbul and Bursa hasdecreased and so a contribution was made to the environment.In the Year 2010, 84.595.160 passengers and 6.921.704 vehicles were carriedby İDO A.Ş. in within inland Marmara Sea lines.
Container Feeder ServiceEast Mediterranean Express Service Shipping and Transport S.A. (EMES) provides regularweekly services between Black Sea and the Mediterranean Ports with its fleet of 21vessels, which includes vessels belonging to Arkas.
Turkon and Emes are the two major local short sea container shipping lines operators.Turkon Line calls the ports in the Mediterranean, Israel, North America andEurope with its own new containers serving to the needs of the shippers.
Now Turkey has an active role for Ten-T, MarcoPolo, EuroMed, Traceca Project and Tina Process.In parallel with Euopean Council Short sea shippingpolicy, the “Short Sea Promotion Center” (SPC -Turkey) has been established in Turkey by theUnion of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges ofTurkey (TOBB),
6. Conclusion• The seas are lifeblood for Europe and Turkey. It should be beared in mind that there is a trend „short sea shipping‟ and short sea shipping market is growing - especially North European countries• Turkish roro shipping has been improving and needs more domestic roro lines for reducing road traffic, risks and environment pollution and noise, risks of death especially. For transporters, „‟Saving time‟‟ and ‟‟ less waiting at custom gates of all countries are the main factors effecting profits.
• With Turkey‟s huge industrial capacity, geographical and strategic positions of Turkish ports, Turkey should make greater achivements in short sea shipping.• Government should realise the fact that SSS does not include only roro shipping. Also feeder container shipping should be supported.• With the new roro lines connecting Middle East to Europe (Egypt- Mersin), For SSS, Turkey has proved its importance as being one of the leading country in EU.• The Short Sea Shipping Operation, could provide an answer to the present problems encountered in classical road transport and is totally in line with the sustainable transport policies of the EU.
Ref:• (1)http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/transport• (2) Unalmış, M.,(2005) Maritime Transportation in Turkey & European Unıon with Special Reference To Privatization of Ports,MSc Thesis,İstanbul University,İstanbul• (3) http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=4277• (4)Baird, A.J. (1998) Fast Freight Ferries as an Instrument of Modal Shift. Conference on Fast Seaborne Transportation. London: RINA (Royal Institution of Naval Architects).