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Task based instruction
 

Task based instruction

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    Task based instruction Task based instruction Presentation Transcript

    • TASK BASED LANGUAGE TEACHING
    • -Procedure -Conclusion Advantages of TBLT Disadvantages of TBLT Criticism Conclusion
    • OUTLINE - Background Information - Approach Theory of Language Theory of Learning Principles
    • Background ; What is task? Task: a piece of work to be done, esp. one done regularly, unwillingly, or with difficulty. (Cambridge Dictionary)
    • An activity which required learners to arrive at an outcome from given information through some process of thought and which allowed teachers to control and regulate that process was regarded as a task. (Prabhu, 1987:24)
    • -What is task based language teaching? Task-based language learning (TBLL), also known as task-based language teaching (TBLT) or task-based instruction (TBI) focuses on the use of authentic language and on asking students to do meaningful tasks using the target language.
    • -Historical background  first appeared in the vocational training practices of the 1950s.  popularized by N. Prabhu in Bangalore, Southern India.
    •  Task analysis initially focused on solo psychomotor tasks for which little communication or collaboration was involved.
    • -Why do we use tasks?  They create contexts that facilitate second language acquisition.  Students learn by interacting.  A task-based instruction enables teachers to see if students are developing the ability to communicate in an L2, rather than product.  Tasks can be easily related to students‟ real life language needs.
    • Examples; Preparing a meal Solving a problem Designing a brochure Compiling qualities of a friend
    • Approach; Theory of Language  Language is a primarily a means of making meaning.  Multiple models of language inform TBLT.  Lexical units are central in language use and language learning.  “Conversation” is the central focus of language and the keystone of language acquisition.
    • Theory of Learning  Tasks provide both the input and output processing necessary for language acquisition.  Task activity and achievement are motivational.  Learning difficulty can be negotiated and fine-tuned for particular pedagogical purposes.
    • Principles  Making errors is natural and is considered as a part of the process in acquiring the target language.  Learning tasks facilitating learners to engage in interactions are essential.  Learners need to be encouraged to produce the target language.
    •  Teachers ensure that activities are interconnected and organized with clearly specified objectives and promote the desire to learn.  Teaching and learning processes should foster motivation and minimize learner anxiety.  The choice of tasks and content should be based on learner‟s age.
    • -DESIGN *goals in TBLT are ideally to be determined by the specific needs of particular learners. “Selection of tasks should be based on a careful analysis of the real-world needs of learners.” (Crookes 1993).
    • Syllabus: TBL is more concern with the process of learning rather than with specific content and skills that might be acquired through the use of this process.
    • D. Nunan (1989) suggests that a syllabus might specify two types of tasks: I. Real-world tasks designed to practice or rehearse those tasks that are found to be important in a needs analysis and turn out to be important and useful in the real world. II. Pedagogic tasks, which have a psycholinguistic basis but do not necessarily, reflect real-world tasks.
    • Types of Learning and Teaching Activities:
    • Learner Roles: Group Participant: Many tasks will be done in pairs or in small groups. Monitor: students have the opportunity to notice how language is used in communication.
    • Risk Taker and Innovator: Many tasks will require learners to create and interpret messages for which they lack full linguistic resources and prior experience. The skills of guessing from linguistic and contextual clues, asking for clarification and consulting with other learners may also need to be developed.
    • Teacher Roles: Selector and Sequencer of Tasks: a central role of the teacher is in selecting, adapting and/or creating the tasks themselves and then forming these into an instructional sequence in keeping with learner needs, interests and language skill level.
    • Prepare Learners for Tasks: activities might include topic introduction, clarifying task instructions, recall students useful words and phrases to facilitate task accomplishment and providing partial demonstration of task procedures.
    • The Role of Instructional Materials: Some of them may require considerable time ingenuity, and resources to develop. Materials that can be exploited for instruction in TBLT are limited only by the imagination of the task designer. Realia: the use of authentic tasks supported by authentic materials wherever possible.
    • Procedure
    • Conclusion; Advantages of TBLT  applicable and suitable for students of all ages and backgrounds.  the strongest instruction of Communicative Language Teaching.  effective because it uses all the skills.  Students are free to use whatever vocabulary and grammar they know, rather than just the target language of the lesson.
    • helps students pay close attention to the relationship between form and meaning.  Students will be exposed to a whole range of lexical phrases, collocations and patterns as well as language forms.  encourages students to be more ambitious in the language. 
    • Disadvantages of TBLT      requires a high level of creativity and initiative on the part of the task. requires resources beyond the textbooks and related materials usually found in language classrooms. It is not teacher-centered and it requires individual and group responsibility. There is a risk for learners to achieve fluency at the expense of accuracy. The role of instruction is variable and unclear, grading is difficult, and they do not fit well with an exam context.
    • Criticism
    •     Swan states that it is flexible and not a continuous method. lack of a systematic grammatical or the type of syllabus that characterizes current version of TBLT. significantly less effective for systematic teaching of new language. The elicited performances may depend on abilities or knowledge rather than language itself.
    • Conclusion     Task-based teaching offers the opportunity for „natural‟ learning inside the classroom. encourages child-centered learning. helps learners develop individual differences and support learning autonomy. helps learners use language in a communicative process through authentic experience while engaging the target language.
    • http://www.slideshare.net/hulyagulek1993/taskbased-language-teaching-tblt http://www.slideshare.net/NickoroEN48/tbi-complete2 http://tr.scribd.com/doc/19445226/Task-BasedLanguage-Teaching Richards, J. C. & Rodgers, T. S. (2001) Approaches Methods in Language Teaching (Second Edition) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Diane Larsen-Freeman, (2000) Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching (Second Edition) Oxford: Oxford University Press
    • Helin AKİN Tuğçe ASLAN Fatoş AKBABA