THE ARGUMENTS WERE ALL REFERRING
EXPRESSION,NAMES FOR REAL OR PONTENSIAL
ENTITIES.AN ARGUMENT CAN ALSO BE A
PREDICATION,A REAL OR POTENTIAL FACT,AND
SUCH AN ARGUMENT IS EXPRESSED AS A
CLAUSE-THAT IS,A SENTENCE THAT IS
EMBEDDED IN ANOTHER SENTENCE.IN OTHER
WORDS,WE CAN MAKE STATEMENTS AND ASK
QUESTION ABOUT FACT.
1a. ivan knows the answer.
1b. Ivan knows (that)were are here.
2a. Sally forgot her appointment
2b. Sally forgot (that) sara was waiting for
3a. The judges announced their decision
to the eager contestants.
3b. The judges announced to the eager
contestants that they had reached a decision.
In 1a,2a,and 3a a noun phrase is object of the verb.in 1b,2b,and
3b, a clause occurs in the same place and with the same role.in
3b the direct object and indirect object have been
rearranged,the shorter element placed before the longer one.
A clause that has these characteristics,subject pronoun as
subject and full possibility of verb modifications,is a full
clause.reduced clauses ,which we examine below ,have neither
of these characteristics.
Clauses can also occur in subject position.let’s star again with
noun phrases that can be replaced by clauses.
Question,as well as statement,are embedded in other
senteces,they may be information questions,as in the following
9. I wonder when the concert was.(when was the concert?)
10.robert doesn’t know what time it is.(what time is it)
11.do you remember where you put the tickets?(where did you
put the tickets)
The embedded sentence may be a yes-no question.the
word that introduces the embedded clause is if ,which,unlike
that,is not deletable.
12. i doubt if geogre knows the answer.(does george know the
13.please tell us if you feel ill.(do you feel ill)
A yes-no question may present two or more
alternatives,e.g. will your friends stay or leave?when such an
alternative question is embedded,it is introduced with the word
14. I wonder whether your friends will stay or leave.
The sentence with expect contains one kind of reduced
clause,an infinitive clause.
17 a the eagles expect the hawks to win the game
17 b the eagles expect to win the game
There is a group of verbs that can have as object an
infinitive clause with out to or a gerund clause.A gerund clause
has a verb with the suffix-ing .
26a, I saw Mr hall come out of garage .
26b,I saw Mr hall coming out of garage.
Gerund clause with tacit subject are seen in the next of group
I enjoy attending the theater
Edward denied opening the letter.
The subject of the gerund is the same as the subject of the
main verb :the sentences are about ‘my’ attending the concert.
A small group of adjective takes gerund clause
complements,with a preposition between adjective and gerund.
1.who is responsible for doing this?
2 I’m grateful for your taking time off.
Non –factual clauses
I insist that ronald works very hard
I insist that ronald work very hard
I insist that ronald should work very hard
the full clause in A is a factual clause and we give the name
non-factual clause to the embedded clause of B and C with or
without should.a difference between the factual clause A and
noun factual clause of B ; the presence or absence of the
ending –s,with I ,you or plural subject this distinction is lost:I I
insist that they work very hard is ambiguous.
We watched mark winning the race
We applauded mark’s winning of the race.
The second sentence contain a verbal noun ,formed like
the gerund by adding-ing.the difference between gerund and
verbal noun is in the kind of constructions they appear in :the
subject of the verbal noun is typically possessive and the object
of the verbal noun is preceded by of.all verbs form a gerund by
Comparing types of clauses
Different kinds of clause can present different kinds of
meanings,but this is obvious only when the same predicate can be
accompaneid by different kinds of clauses.the verb agree for
instance,can be followed by an infinitive clause and a full clause.
A .we agreed to meet again the next day
B .we agreed that we would meet again the next day
The verb agree followed by an infinitive clause indicates a
commitment,on the part of the subject,to do something ,A is about
‘our’ commitment to meet the next day.that is all that can be
expressed by the infinitive clause after agree.a full clause can express
all kind of facts and possible facts,including commintments on the part
of the subject.there is not much difference between A and B ,however
C is not about a commitment but about knowledge or a belief that’’we’’
hold in common.
Syntactic ambiguity may be in the surface structure of a
sentence:word can cluster together in different possible
constructions,syntacti ambiguity may also be in the deep
structure :one sequence of words may have more than one
interpresation,generally because the rules of sentence
construction allow ellipsis ,the deletion of what is understood”
a.construction containing the coordinators and or
john and mary or pat will go
b.a coordinate head with one modifier
the only people left were old men and women
c.A head with one coordinate modifier
your essay should contain four or five hundred words.