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  • 1. THE ARGUMENTS WERE ALL REFERRING EXPRESSION,NAMES FOR REAL OR PONTENSIAL ENTITIES.AN ARGUMENT CAN ALSO BE A PREDICATION,A REAL OR POTENTIAL FACT,AND SUCH AN ARGUMENT IS EXPRESSED AS A CLAUSE-THAT IS,A SENTENCE THAT IS EMBEDDED IN ANOTHER SENTENCE.IN OTHER WORDS,WE CAN MAKE STATEMENTS AND ASK QUESTION ABOUT FACT.
  • 2. 1a. ivan knows the answer. 1b. Ivan knows (that)were are here. 2a. Sally forgot her appointment 2b. Sally forgot (that) sara was waiting for her 3a. The judges announced their decision to the eager contestants. 3b. The judges announced to the eager contestants that they had reached a decision.
  • 3.  In 1a,2a,and 3a a noun phrase is object of the verb.in 1b,2b,and 3b, a clause occurs in the same place and with the same role.in 3b the direct object and indirect object have been rearranged,the shorter element placed before the longer one.  A clause that has these characteristics,subject pronoun as subject and full possibility of verb modifications,is a full clause.reduced clauses ,which we examine below ,have neither of these characteristics.  Clauses can also occur in subject position.let’s star again with noun phrases that can be replaced by clauses.
  • 4. Question,as well as statement,are embedded in other senteces,they may be information questions,as in the following examples:  9. I wonder when the concert was.(when was the concert?)  10.robert doesn’t know what time it is.(what time is it)  11.do you remember where you put the tickets?(where did you put the tickets) The embedded sentence may be a yes-no question.the word that introduces the embedded clause is if ,which,unlike that,is not deletable.  12. i doubt if geogre knows the answer.(does george know the answer)  13.please tell us if you feel ill.(do you feel ill) Question clauses
  • 5. A yes-no question may present two or more alternatives,e.g. will your friends stay or leave?when such an alternative question is embedded,it is introduced with the word whether.  14. I wonder whether your friends will stay or leave.  The sentence with expect contains one kind of reduced clause,an infinitive clause.  17 a the eagles expect the hawks to win the game  17 b the eagles expect to win the game
  • 6. GERUND CLAUSE There is a group of verbs that can have as object an infinitive clause with out to or a gerund clause.A gerund clause has a verb with the suffix-ing . Example:  26a, I saw Mr hall come out of garage .  26b,I saw Mr hall coming out of garage.  Gerund clause with tacit subject are seen in the next of group of sentences:  I enjoy attending the theater  Edward denied opening the letter.
  • 7. The subject of the gerund is the same as the subject of the main verb :the sentences are about ‘my’ attending the concert. A small group of adjective takes gerund clause complements,with a preposition between adjective and gerund. E.G:  1.who is responsible for doing this?  2 I’m grateful for your taking time off.
  • 8. Non –factual clauses  I insist that ronald works very hard  I insist that ronald work very hard  I insist that ronald should work very hard the full clause in A is a factual clause and we give the name non-factual clause to the embedded clause of B and C with or without should.a difference between the factual clause A and noun factual clause of B ; the presence or absence of the ending –s,with I ,you or plural subject this distinction is lost:I I insist that they work very hard is ambiguous.
  • 9. Verbal nouns  We watched mark winning the race  We applauded mark’s winning of the race. The second sentence contain a verbal noun ,formed like the gerund by adding-ing.the difference between gerund and verbal noun is in the kind of constructions they appear in :the subject of the verbal noun is typically possessive and the object of the verbal noun is preceded by of.all verbs form a gerund by adding –ing.
  • 10. Comparing types of clauses Different kinds of clause can present different kinds of meanings,but this is obvious only when the same predicate can be accompaneid by different kinds of clauses.the verb agree for instance,can be followed by an infinitive clause and a full clause. Ex:  A .we agreed to meet again the next day  B .we agreed that we would meet again the next day The verb agree followed by an infinitive clause indicates a commitment,on the part of the subject,to do something ,A is about ‘our’ commitment to meet the next day.that is all that can be expressed by the infinitive clause after agree.a full clause can express all kind of facts and possible facts,including commintments on the part of the subject.there is not much difference between A and B ,however C is not about a commitment but about knowledge or a belief that’’we’’ hold in common.
  • 11. Syntactic ambiguity Syntactic ambiguity may be in the surface structure of a sentence:word can cluster together in different possible constructions,syntacti ambiguity may also be in the deep structure :one sequence of words may have more than one interpresation,generally because the rules of sentence construction allow ellipsis ,the deletion of what is understood” Ex :  a.construction containing the coordinators and or  john and mary or pat will go  b.a coordinate head with one modifier  the only people left were old men and women  c.A head with one coordinate modifier  your essay should contain four or five hundred words.