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Urban  Revision Urban Revision Presentation Transcript

  • Modern Urban Environments Revision 3rd April 2009
  • Theory: Burgess Model This model is based on the idea that land values are highest in the centre of a town or city. This is because competition is high in the central parts of the settlement. This leads to high-rise, high-density buildings being found near the CBD , with low-density, sparse developments on the edge of the town or city
    • Limitations:
    • Quite old, developed before mass car ownership.
    • New trends in working and living habits.
    • Every City is different!!! No ‘typical model’
  • Case Study: Birmingham
    • Birmingham, a city in the West Midlands illustrates many of the features of the modern urban environment.
    • CBD
    • Old Inner City areas – Sparkhill
    • Redeveloped Inner City areas – Highgate
    • Inner Suburburbs - Hall Green
    • Outer Suburb areas - Monkspath
    • Rural Urban Fringe?
  •  
  • 2006, P1, Q2
    • Study Figure 2 , a model showing different urban zones in a settlement ( urban morphology ).
  • Complete the following table to show how the land use is different in each urban zone. One has been done for you. (3 marks) High rise buildings, Department stores, offices, banks, public buildings e.g. libraries, town hall, courts Terrace housing built for workers in 19th century Low density housing for people who can travel farther to work. SUBURBS Zone 4 INNER CITY Zone 3 ZONE IN TRANSITION Area of mixed services, industry, wholesaling and oldest housing. Zone 2 CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT Zone 1
  • Name the large urban area you have studied. Compare your chosen large urban area with the model in Figure 2 . You must refer to examples of streets/districts in your answer. (4 marks )
    • Level 1 Basic (1-2 marks)
    • No reference to named example or basic description of the area with no reference to the model.
    • New Street, Colmore Row and Broad Street are in the centre of Birmingham.
    • The zone of transition areas are found in Highgate and inner city terraced housing can be seen in Sparkhill. and then come Hall Green. The furthest out is Monkspath. In the centre are shops and offices. Then come poor housing and nearer the edge are better class housing .
    • Level 2 Clear (3-4 marks)
    • Some indication of where the urban morphology fits or does not fit perfectly into the simple concentric model of Figure 2. Need to refer to at least 2 urban zones for full marks. Maximum mark only if some comparison made to urban model.
    • Birmingham is an example of a city that generally fits into the concentric zone model. The CBD is found in the centre of the city and has all the typical features of a CBD. New Street is the centre of the retail area, Colmore Row is the main financial area and Broad Street is one of the main entertainment areas in the CBD. Birmingham’s CBD is surrounded by the Inner City areas as identified in the model. Highgate is an inner city area that had been redeveloped and there is now a mixture of both industry and lower quality housing. Sparkhill is another inner city area although this area is more traditional with rows of 19th century terraced housing that have now been improved and gentrified. One area that does not fit the circular model is Edgbaston/ Harborne. This area is close to the CBD however is chararcterised by expensive 19th housing that was originally owned by industrialists. The houses tend to be large detached houses. Housing is newer as you move outwards, for example the outer suburb of Monkspath is newer than the inner suburb of Hall Green. Monkspath is dominated mostly
    • by modern, high class detached and semi detached housing and Hall Green is characterised by interwar semi detached housing. Another area that does not fit the concentric model is Chelmsley Wood. This is a housing estate found on the edge of the city.
    Some indication of where the urban morphology does or does not fit into the model Reference to at least 2 urban zones
  • Urban Definitions…
    • (slum clearance) is where the old buildings are knocked down and new ones built.
    • is the upgrading and modernising of existing properties.
    Can you give examples of both? What are the advantages and disadvantages? Comprehensive redevelopment Housing renovation
  • What is Gentrification? The rejuvenation of urban areas of a city experiencing substantial decline. Examples? Advantages? Disadvantages?
  •  
  • 2007, P1,Q5 Study Figure 8 , on the insert, which shows an area of Stoke-on-Trent before and after improvement. Suggest why this urban renewal scheme has advantages over a comprehensive redevelopment scheme (4)
    • Level 1 (Basic) 1-2 marks
    • Simple statements, with lifts from Figure 8, or with no indication of why the scheme in Stoke-on-Trent is better than comprehensive redevelopment.
    • The area has been landscaped and there are places for the toddlers to play. Roads have been improved. Renovation is cheaper.
    • Level 2 (Clear) 3-4 marks
    • Linked statements, which show how urban renewal is better than slum
    • clearance.
    • With comprehensive redevelopment people would have to be moved away from the area where they had lived for a long time so there would be a loss of community spirit. With urban renewal however , people could stay in the area and the houses would have been modernised and improved for example with new bathroom facilities or new roofs. The general environment is also improved making it a more pleasant area in which to live for example ‘green’ areas are provided through landscaping and play areas are provided for young children. (4 marks)
    Linked statements
  • Why can gentrification be considered a disadvantage to some people living in inner city areas? (1 mark)
    • The price of houses would go up and the local people may not be able to buy in the area any more.
    • There may be some change of service provision in the area e.g. a pub might become a wine bar.
    • These changes might lead to social divisions within the area.
  • 2004, P1 Study Figure 2 on the insert which is an aerial photograph of a new urban development on the rural-urban fringe of Bristol.
  • 2004, P1 Study Figure 2 on the insert which is an aerial photograph of a new urban development on the rural-urban fringe of Bristol.
    • ( a) Name two kinds of land use shown in this new urban development.(2marks)
    • Housing (residential)/industrial/communication/leisure
    • recreation. (No credit for farming/retailing)
    • (b) Which of the following terms best describes the type of development shown in the photograph? (1 mark)
    • counter-urbanisation
    • suburbanisation
    • gentrification
    • suburbanisation
  • (c) What evidence is there in the photograph that this is a planned development?
    • Level 1 Basic 1-2 marks
    • Simple statements, which are largely descriptive repeating the types of land-uses present without any appreciation of the layout of the development.
    • There are areas of houses and areas of factories separated by roads. Greenbelt.
    • Level 2 Clear 3-4 marks
    • Clear understanding shown. An organised answer, with some linkages. Uses a good range of specialist terms where appropriate.
    • There are distinctive zones with roads acting as boundaries so that each zone is separate and has a distinctive land-use. The areas nearest the major road are industrial so that …….. The housing area is away from the main road. The area was planned so that the traffic going to the industrial areas was kept separate from the residential area. Greenbelt stops development into the countryside.
  • Uses of the Rural Urban Fringe in Birmingham
    • Agriculture
    • Airport – Birmingham International
    • Business – Blythe Valley Business Park
    • Recreation – Golf courses.
    • Shopping – Supermarkets, out of town shopping centres.
    • Housing
  • Suburbanisation and Commuter Villages
    • Suburbanisation= The continued expansion of residential areas on the rural urban fringe e.g. Monkspath.
    • Commuter Villages= A village where and a large number of the residents travel to work each day in another settlement and then back home each evening e.g. Dorridge
  • Commuter Villages & Commuters! Commuter Villages: Commuter villages: Commuters: Commuters: Disadvantages Advantages
  • Traffic… Solutions Problems
  • In Which area are you most likely to…
    • Get your car stolen?
    • See a fox at night?
    • See a Porsche car parked?
    • Have a school with good exam grades?
    • Have people complaining about noise from their neighbours?
    • See empty McDonalds wrappers?
    • Be able to buy milk at 10.30 at night?
    • Be able to catch a bus to visit friends anywhere in the city?
    • See a police car with its blue lights flashing?
    • Be able to buy drugs?