Understanding The Modern Urban EnvironmentPresentation Transcript
Understanding the modern urban environment
Urban environment Counter urbanisation 5 Rural – urban fringe 13 Comprehensive redevelopment 4 Green belt 7 Out of town shopping centre 11 Twilight zone 18 suburbs 17 migration 10 CBD 1 Housing renovation 8 Slum clearance 15 urbanisation 19 Urban sprawl 16 Shopping centre 14 gentrification 6 Urban morphology 20 Inner city 9 commuter 2 Retail park 12 Commuter village 3
1. Corner shop – 19th C terraced housing areas (Open all hours) which sold low order convenience goods, people walk to shop daily
2. Shopping Parades – found in suburban housing areas. Low order convenience goods, shops used on a daily basis - Dorridge
3. City Centre areas – high –order, travel by public transport, visits once per week or less, part of CBD
4. Along main roads leading out of city centres – low order, serve passing trade where drivers park their cars outside and make rapid purchase.
What are the traditional four main shopping locations?
2. What are the reasons for supermarket location at a. edge of CBD? b. edge of urban area?
Edge of CBD
Cleared land at edge of CBD. This is in twilight zone and was 19th century factories and terraced housing which was demolished to provide a large flat site for single storey shop and car park.
Close to public transport and densely populated areas
b. Edge of urban area
retail parks contain several large stores often with DIT outlet, large electrical shops and furniture outlets with large free carparking spaces. Often have fast food outlet. Many also have entertainment facilities such as cinema or bowling alley.
Large flat site
What are advantages of Regional shopping centres?
Accessible - good access to motorways – shoppers and deliveries
Relatively close to suburban areas to find employees
Large areas of cleared land, cheaper than in CBD – space for shopping area and car parking
Location Accessed from M60 – ringing Manchester, links to M62,M6, M56 – so it is easily reached from Leeds, Liverpool and Chester Close to suburban area of Urmston for workers Large area of cleared land on the edge of Trafford Park industrial Estate – space for shopping and car parking Short distance to M60 means foods can be delivered quickly from warehouses – along M6 and M62
‘The Trafford Centre is one of the most exciting shopping and leisure destinations in Britain with stunning architecture, themed streets, 280 stores and 35 restaurants. It is also home to a 20-screen cinema and a bowling alley. Daily entertainment and a children's wonder world mean there's something to suit all the family ‘
Case study – Trafford Centre http://www.traffordcentre.co.uk /
Advantages to shoppers:
Free parking, own bus station
Facilities for disabled
280 shops and 35 cafes – national chain stores, high order goods
market feel – street barrows selling a variety of goods
cafes stay open late
20 screen cinema
pleasant environment – wide, tree lined, air conditioned malls
long opening hours
Why have these changes in retail location occurred?
1. Expansion of car ownership which means
that people can buy in bulk
park close to shopping outlet – large cheap sites
drive quickly to the stores – accessible sites – motorway junctions or at edge of residential areas
2. Change in lifestyle
workers want to purchase food for a week under one roof – supermarkets
want to shop at weekends and in evenings – so need for longer opening times
shopping is seen as a ‘leisure activity’ so centres which combine purchasing, cafes and entertainment are popular
3. Retailers want to encourage custom whilst keeping costs low
out of town locations where land is cheaper and does not need clearing
motorway junctions where customers can be attracted from a wider area.
How have these changes affected the traditional retailing pattern?
Corner shops closed, Some have joined co-operatives like Spar to reduce overheads, act as off licences, video shops or newsagents
Closure of bakers and grocers
High streets and city centres have been affected by the development of out of town shopping areas – retail outlets have closed on fringe of CBD as customers find it more convenient to travel by car to edge of urban area.
City centres are fighting back-
Pedestrianised shopping centres with trees and cafes – segregates shoppers and traffic, more pleasant environment – New Street, Pallisades, Pavillions
Reduced parking fees for late night and Sunday opening
Undercover shopping malls – Bullring Shopping Centre