(i) Using only evidence from Fig 4, describe the distribution of the reservoirs shown (2)
(ii) Name a reservoir on Fig 4 that is in the Lake District (1)
(iii) In the 1990s there were water shortages in parts of the UK. Give three reasons that help to explain this (3)
b. In some parts of the UK groundwater supplies are more important than surface reservoirs. Explain why (5)
Rainfall map of t Rainfall map of the United Kingdom Fig 1. - Annual precipitation over Great Britain he United Kingdom Fig 1. - Annual precipitation over Great Britain Heaviest rainfall Areas with most cloud cover Lowest summer temperatures – less loss of water due to evaporation or transpiration Areas with low population density WATER SURPLUS WATER DEFICIT Demand > Supply Rainfall is lower Evaporation and transpiration is high 1/3 UK population lives in SE IN THE WEST IN THE EAST
Porous – rock with spaces between the particles which make up the rock
Permeable – rock which allows water to pass through the pore spaces
Pervious – rock which allows water to pass through via cracks
Impermeable – rock which does not allow water to pass through
Groundwater - water stored underground in areas of permeable rock
Demand for water is increasing for the following reasons:
Increased domestic use – dishwashers
Increased use in farming – with hotter and drier summers arable farmers are using irrigation for crops
UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY – CASE STUDY: LONDON BASIN
Rock types found in Greater London basin are:
Sandstone, chalk and limestone which are permeable
Clay which is impermeable
Rain falling on the Chiltern Hills and North Downs soaks in through the permeable chalk. The Chalk layer is called an aquifer because ground water supplies can be taken from it.
The water table reaches the surface in places where the water comes out as springs
Where the water table is always below the surface a well has to be dug to reach the ground water.
Water table rises in winter when there is plenty of rainfall, low evaporation and transpiration
Water table falls in summer when there is less rainfall and higher rates of evaporation
To ensure there is water in the well all year round the bottom of the well must be below the lowest summer level of the water table
When the wells were first dug the water table was so high above the bottom of the wells that it flowed out without being pumped = artesian well
Today Greater London needs more water than the ground water can yield so extra supplies come from: Pumping (abstraction) from Rover Thames Waste water from factories and homes is purified and reused.
UPLAND RESERVOIR – CASE STUDY: KIELDER RESERVOIR
KIELDER – UPLAND RESERVOIR
The demand for water by industries (especially oil and chemical industries of Teeside) and domestic users in the northeast of England was expected to exceed supply by 1981
Scheme involved two stages:
building the dam and creating Kielder Reservoir
Pumping water through huge pipes 8km uphill from the R.Tyne to a holding reservoir Airy Holm Headpond From here water is transferred through 40km of tunnels to R.Wear and Tees
Water is used in industries such as Nissan car plant and Sunderland (Weardale) and oil refineries at Middlesbrough (Teeside)
Site selected in Cheviot Hills due to:
Large flat-bottomed valley with steep sides
Base rock – impermeable volcanic rock Whinsill
High annual rainfall >1370mm pa
Marginal land – could only be used for forestry and rough grazing.
Large water catchment area
Local deposits of boulder clay, sand and gravel needed in the dam construction
The demand for water by industries was less than expected.
Other uses were found for Kielder:
Regulating the flow of the Tyne. It stores water to reduce the flood risk downstream and water is released during periods of low river discharge.
Constructing a small HEP scheme which produced enough power (6,000kw) to satisfy a town of 10 000 population. Opened 1984
Wildlife conservation . The Bakthin Arm is managed to conserve wildlife and boating etc is not allowed.
Using the 43km shoreline, the water and Kielder forest as resources to encourage tourism and recreation .
300 000 visitors per year
3rd most popular tourist attraction in Northumbria.
Activities include water ski-ing, yachting, forest walks, orienteering, picnic sites, cycling, horse riding, camping and caravanning. Leaplish and Tower Knowe have become ‘honeypots’
Employment opportunities – water sports instruction, information centres, accommodation etc. The only other employment is in the timber industry and farming which employ few people.
Kielder Water – an UPLAND RESERVOIR http://www.heinemann.co.uk/shared/Resources/NonSecure/00000000/GCSEGeogAQABch1.pdf