Why has the number of visitors to the Lake District Increased? Increase in paid holidays Shorter working week – 45 hours to 37.5 Increase in average salaries so more people have more £ to spend on leisure Increase in car ownership - flexibility More time for leisure – increased use of household equipment Increased accessibility of an area Competition has kept prices low
What is the impact on farming?
Self – catering accommodation
To park on roadside and go for a walk To take wide hay baler along narrow road To drive past sheep as quickly as possible To drive a flock of sheep along narrow road To walk on public footpath across hay meadow No damage to grass which is growing for hay To let the dog run off its lead No disturbance of ewes during lambing Tourist Farmer
What is the impact of tourism on traffic?
Traffic congestion is worst at peak periods such as late mornings and Sunday afternoons in August
Congestion is made worse by narrow twisty roads, steep hills, one lane
25% of tourists report that overcrowding spoilt their visit – this could put them off returning and spending money in the LDNP.
Congestion due to tourist traffic increases transport costs for local farmers and businesses because of delays.
Noise from traffic disturbs nesting birds and other wildlife
Acceptable solutions? Widen the roads Build new roads e.g. by-passes Paint yellow lines – restrict on road parking Ban heavy lorries Park and ride schemes Straighten roads The area is a National Park and therefore the solution is negative planning – no improvements as this would encourage even more traffic. Traffic calming measures Improved public transport YES NO
What is the impact on house prices? 20% of all dwellings in the LDNP are second homes and holiday homes Why do people buy: Attracted to beautiful scenery Have the disposable income Invest in a house in an area where prices are rising Holiday home owners buy properties to rent and make money The landscape has to be preserved so…. The demand for second homes, retirement homes and local people creates much demand …. House prices rise
Effects: Falling population Changes in population structure – few under 45 Changes in rural communities This leads to …. Decline in services: Public bus services are removed Primary schools are closed Village shops close Low paid jobs Ways of life are not in tune with local people or support local activities Loss of community spirit Conflict: Young couple v Holiday home owners Conflict: 2 nd home owners and couple who Have lived in the Village for years
Choose 1 comment which shows that there may be conflict between local people and visitors to the Lake District What conflict is suggested by this comment (2 marks)
What is the impact of tourism on employment?
low paid and low in skills – waiters, maids, car park attendants.
Work tends to be tourist related - shops in Ambleside which used to sell food, shoes or clothes now sells gifts, outdoor clothing. These cater for the tourist and are there fore more profitable.
Small businesses – 48% are in the tourism sector and 80% employ fewer than 5 people.
What is the impact of tourism on the landscape?
Footpath erosion – involves the interaction of walkers, plants, soil and rainwater
Footpath erosion is greatest:
Where the slope is steeper than 10 degrees
At high altitudes where there is a short growing season so plants cannot repair the damage done to them.
Where the soil can be easily compacted and is relatively impermeable.
Where there is a popular route to, for instance, a mountain top such as Helvellyn.
At pedestrian exits from car parks.
Solutions to impact of tourism on landscape
Reducing visitor numbers
limit car parking
Use publicity to encourage people to use other paths which are less likely to suffer damage.
Resting routes by changing the line of the paths and fertilising and re-seeding the damaged ones.
Contruct hard wearing paths.
Honey pot sites
A honeypot site is one where there is attractive scenery or historical interest and tourists visit in large numbers.
B&B guests can be taken in. Conflict with farmers because of tourists damaging hedges, gates etc. Spare farm buildings can be converted into holiday cottages Overuse of footpaths leading to erosion of land surface Farmers can sell produce such as eggs to visitors. Lack of toilets Jobs for local people Road congestion in the neighbourhood Money provided for investment in roads etc. Lack of parking spaces, and spread of parked cars onto verges, farmland etc. Trade for local shops Litter Benefits Problems
Tarn Hows is owned by the National Trust 4km from Coniston 7km from Ambleside central Lake District.
Reasons tourists visit:
Easy road access
Opportunities to walk, picnic and play
Visitors tend to stay for over 3 hours on average
Solutions to access problems:
Heavy traffic such as coaches were banned
Passing places built on the road
Road was made 1-way
Solutions to car park problems : Three new car parks built in hidden places Car park charges have been introduced Solution to footpath problems severely eroded footpaths covered with soil and reseeded –The main badly eroded path around the lake has been improved by gravel and has been widened to 2 or 3 metres. The wide paths and gentle slopes have also been designed to allow wheelchair use.
Wooden benches placed along the path
Place for ice cream van – not in the general view
Litter bins removed to encourage people to take it home.
Some built next to car park entrance lids stop wind blowing rubbish away.
What do the locations of the main areas of caravan sites in the Lake District have in common? 1 mark Why have some of the lakes become honeypot sites? 4 marks