Social Sustainability In Cities


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  • Brownfield sites are derelict areas that have been used but aren’t being used anymore Using brownfield sites means that green spaces are left alone and therefore available for recreational use and the future Improving brownfield sites also makes the city look better
  • Social Sustainability In Cities

    1. 2. What do you see? What questions would you ask? What is negative? What is positive? Patayas Garbage Dump in Qezon City Phillippines Source:
    2. 3. Social Sustainability in cities <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the term sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to describe the characteristics of a sustainable city </li></ul><ul><li>To explain how certain social factors influence sustainability of cities </li></ul>Paradise city, Saõ Paulo Photo: Luiz Arthur Leirão
    3. 4. AQA A syllabus …. <ul><li>Key idea: </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts can be made to ensure that urban living is sustainable. </li></ul><ul><li>What you need to know: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Characteristics of a sustainable city. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Environmental factors: </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of conserving the historic and natural environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Brownfield sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing and safely disposing of waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Providing adequate open spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Social factors – including local people in the decision-making process. </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of an efficient public transport system. </li></ul><ul><li>4. A case study of sustainable urban living. </li></ul>
    4. 5. Key words: (see page 331) <ul><li>Urbanisation ……………………………………….. </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability: …………………– environmental, economic, social </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Development: &quot;development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.&quot; ( Brundtland Report ) </li></ul><ul><li>So what is a sustainable city? </li></ul><ul><li>An urban area where residents have a way of life that will last a long time. The environment is not damaged and the economic and social fabric, due to local involvement are able to stand the test of time </li></ul>
    5. 6. <ul><li>Quality of life : </li></ul><ul><li>People's overall well-being. Quality of life is difficult to measure (whether for an individual, group, or nation) because in addition to material well-being (see standard of living) it includes such intangible components as the quality of the environment, national security, personal safety, and ... </li></ul><ul><li>Standard of living: </li></ul><ul><li>The level of well-being (of an individual, group or the population of a country) as measured by the level of income (for example, GNP per capita) or by the quantity of various goods and services consumed (for example, the number of cars per 1,000 people or the number of television sets per ... </li></ul>
    6. 7. What is ‘sustainable living’? <ul><li>This means doing things in a way now that lets people have the things they need but without reducing the ability of people in the future to meet their needs </li></ul><ul><li>Behaving in a way that doesn’t irreversibly damage the environment or use up resources faster than they can be replaced </li></ul><ul><li>Cities need so many resources so it is unlikely that they would ever be truly sustainable but things can be done to make the city and the way people live there more sustainable </li></ul>
    8. 9. Planning issue 1 A housing area is to be redeveloped. Suggest some ideas for how it is going to be made more sustainable .
    9. 10. Suggestions …. <ul><li>Solar panels on the roof </li></ul><ul><li>Catching rainwater from roof and using it to </li></ul><ul><li>flush the toilets </li></ul><ul><li>Involve local communities </li></ul><ul><li>Include open spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Energy efficient housing design </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling schemes </li></ul><ul><li>Install meters for water and electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon – neutral homes e.g. BEDZED, London </li></ul><ul><li>?? </li></ul>
    10. 11. Planning issue 2 Roads are increasingly congested. How can you encourage people to use their car less, and sustainable transport more ? Page 218 - 219
    11. 12. Suggestions …. <ul><li>Provide a frequent, efficient, safe, reliable, comfortable and affordable public transport system. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide feeder services to housing estates </li></ul><ul><li>Transport that uses less fuel and give out less pollution e.g. some buses in London are powered by hydrogen and emit water vapour </li></ul><ul><li>Park and ride scheme </li></ul><ul><li>Bus lanes – faster journeys </li></ul><ul><li>Free bus passes for all pensioners and children to encourage use </li></ul><ul><li>Open a monorail, tram network, link transport at interchanges </li></ul><ul><li>Improve cycle routes and secure cycle parking near the city centre </li></ul><ul><li>Congestion charge for people wanting to drive into the city centre </li></ul><ul><li>?? </li></ul>
    12. 13. Planning issue 3 A lot of energy is provided by power stations using fossil fuels. Suggest sustainable energy sources and strategies to use instead… Source: E.on's coal-fired Ratcliffe-on-Soar power station in Nottinghamshire. David Sillitoe/Guardian
    13. 14. What about …. <ul><li>Building wind turbines… </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a grant for those people installing a solar panel on their roof </li></ul><ul><li>Collect any rubbish that can be burned separately, and generate electricity with it. </li></ul><ul><li>All new homes have to be fitted with energy efficient technology. </li></ul><ul><li>?? </li></ul>
    14. 15. Planning issue 4 A lot of people fill their bin each week with rubbish that could have been recycled instead. How can you discourage non-sustainable waste disposal? Pages 215 - 216
    15. 16. Suggestions …. <ul><li>Provide everyone with recycling bins for different types of waste e.g. paper, glass, tins… </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the council tax for people who have less in their recycling bin than their ‘normal’ bin. </li></ul><ul><li>Open a recycling centre, where people are paid for the rubbish that they bring e.g. glass bottles </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging which can be recycled </li></ul>
    16. 17. Planning issue 5 A piece of derelict land (brownfield site) that used to be a chemical works is going to be redeveloped. Suggest some projects that could improve the quality of life for people in the city. Page 216
    17. 18. suggestions…. <ul><li>A sports centre, with subsidised entry fees to encourage people to get fit </li></ul><ul><li>A park </li></ul><ul><li>A lake for recreational / sporting use </li></ul><ul><li>Landscape sides of waterways and railways </li></ul><ul><li>Improve the quality of life for urban residents </li></ul><ul><li>New developments improves the appearance of the areas </li></ul><ul><li>?? </li></ul>
    18. 19. Above all … Involve the local community <ul><li>People are much more likely to support sustainability initiatives like increased recycling or new public transport systems if they’re involved in making the decisions about them. Consult rather than impose </li></ul><ul><li>Put people first ask for and then act on their ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Including local people makes the schemes more likely to succeed </li></ul><ul><li>Foster the growth of a community network </li></ul>Page 217
    19. 20. Key Features of a Socially Sustainable city * New homes are …………. * Community links are ……. * Wherever possible, ………are used instead of non-renewable resources . * Waste is seen as a resource and is ………wherever possible * Public transport is …………. <ul><li>Areas of open space are…………………. </li></ul>* Resources and services in the city are ……………. PLENARY Blog
    20. 21. <ul><li>Key features of a sustainable city </li></ul><ul><li>Resources and services in the city are accessible to all. </li></ul><ul><li>Public transport is seen as a viable alternative to cars. </li></ul><ul><li>Public transport is safe and reliable . </li></ul><ul><li>Walking and cycling is safe. </li></ul><ul><li>Areas of open space are safe, accessible and enjoyable. </li></ul><ul><li>Wherever possible, renewable resources are used instead of non-renewable resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Waste is seen as a resource and is recycled wherever possible. </li></ul><ul><li>New homes are energy efficient . </li></ul><ul><li>There is access to affordable housing . </li></ul><ul><li>Community links are strong and communities work together to deal with issues such as crime and security. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural and social amenities are accessible to all. </li></ul><ul><li>Inward investment is made to the CBD. </li></ul>
    21. 22. <ul><li>Getting the planning of a city right means a more resilient economy, healthier residents, a more beautiful place and a better quality of life for everyone. ( http:// /M ) </li></ul>
    22. 23. Exam question practise…
    23. 24. AQA spec A 2009 Increased public transport reduces the need for cars and so reduced traffic congestion and less air pollution / recycling of waste means less waste is put into landfills so having less environmental effect. 2 (c) 1x2. Max 1 for straight lift. (2 marks) e.g. Increased public transport reduces the need for cars and so reduced traffic congestion and therefore less air pollution Recycling of waste means less waste is put into landfills so less environmental effect.
    24. 26. 4 marks AQA A specimen paper
    25. 27. 2(c)(ii) Level 1 (Basic) 1–2 marks Simple lifts from the stimulus material and/or no reference to a named example. Knowledge of basic information Simple understanding Few links; limited detail; uses a limited range of specialist terms Limited evidence of sentence structure. Frequent spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors. There is less water produced. Pollution is reduced. Level 2 (Clear) 3–4 marks Linked statements, with at least the name of an appropriate example. Knowledge of accurate information Clear understanding Answers have some linkages; occasional detail/exemplar; uses some specialist terms where appropriate Clear evidence of sentence structure. Some spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors. In Curitiba in Brazil, there are lots of cheap buses to reduce the number of cars on the road, which reduces the emissions of greenhouse gases. Waste collectors can sell rubbish to recyclers for a profit so less goes into landfill sites.
    26. 28. 2 marks 4 marks There is increased danger of accidents due to the greater number of vehicles on the road. The increase in the amount of traffic can lead to air pollution which impacts on peoples’ health . Buildings can be badly affected because of the increase in the amount of traffic. Discouraging people visiting/shopping in the settlement.
    27. 29. Level 1 (Basic) 1–2 marks Simple statements. Knowledge of basic information. Simple understanding Few links; limited detail; uses a limited range of specialist terms Limited evidence of sentence structure. Frequent spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors. Mass transport systems improve public transport. Pedestrianisation removes traffic from the street. Level 2 (Clear) 3–4 marks Linked statements, which clearly show how the solution described could reduce the traffic problem. Knowledge of accurate information Clear understanding Answers have some linkages; occasional detail/exemplar; uses some specialist terms where appropriate Clear evidence of sentence structure. Some spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors. Mass transit systems like the Tyneside Metro and the trams in Sheffield and Manchester are quick and efficient and are not held up by traffic jams and also reduce air pollution / Bus priority lanes speed up buses and so more people will use them reducing the need for so many cars to be on the road / Pedestrianising city centres makes them safer for pedestrians and reduces noise and air pollution / Increased car parking charges in the city centre will discourage car use and encourage more people to use public transport. The increased profit would be used to invest in better public transport systems.
    28. 30. AQA B 2009 Q6b How might the changes improve the environment and the lives of the people living there? 6 marks Explain why changes might bring disadvantages to some of the original residents 4 marks
    29. 31. 6(b)(i) Level 1 (Basic) 1–2 marks Simple statements indicating the changes, usually directly from Figure 7 without any attempt to relate to the impact on the environment or the lives of the people. Pedestrian crossing trees planted overhead wires removed. Level 2 (Clear) 3–4 marks Linked statements but does not cover both the environment and the lives of the people. Bathrooms built to replace outdoor toilets making it more healthy Trees planted to improve the environment pedestrian crossing to make it safer to cross the road. Level 3 (Detailed) 5–6 marks Linked and elaborated statements covering both the environment and the lives of the people. Cul-de-sacs created in order to stop through traffic and build-outs into the street, which will slow the traffic and make it safer. Derelict land restored and some houses demolished to provide open spaces for children to play. The planting of trees will soften the landscape and make the environment more pleasant.
    30. 32. 6(b)(ii) Level 1 (Basic) 1–2 marks Simple statements. Does not have to be confined to the changes shown in Figure 7. Loss of corner shops Loss of community spirit Increased cost of houses. Level 2 (Clear) 3–4 marks Linked statements. At least two changes/effects for full marks. People who have lived in the area for a long time have to move and there is a loss of community spirit where everybody knew everybody. The improved houses are more expensive to buy or rent so the local people cannot afford them. Gentrification takes place so that the richer yuppies move in and can cause conflict with the long standing inhabitants.
    31. 33. More information …. Pictured-The-floating-cities-day-house-climate-change-refugees.html Local Agenda 21 BedZED
    32. 34. Acknowledgements <ul><li>– Alan Parkinson </li></ul><ul><li> Paula Cooper </li></ul><ul><li>AQA Geography B Nelson Thornes </li></ul><ul><li>AQA Geography A Nelson Thornes </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding GCSE Geography Heinemann </li></ul><ul><li>GCSE Geography AQA A Specification CGP </li></ul>