What do you see? What questions would you ask? What is negative? What is positive? Patayas Garbage Dump in Qezon City Phillippines Source: http://www.geography.org.uk/download/GA_ADVThisBooksRubbish.pdf
Sustainability: …………………– environmental, economic, social
Sustainable Development: "development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." ( Brundtland Report )
So what is a sustainable city?
An urban area where residents have a way of life that will last a long time. The environment is not damaged and the economic and social fabric, due to local involvement are able to stand the test of time
People's overall well-being. Quality of life is difficult to measure (whether for an individual, group, or nation) because in addition to material well-being (see standard of living) it includes such intangible components as the quality of the environment, national security, personal safety, and ... www.worldbank.org/depweb/english/beyond/global/glossary.html
Standard of living:
The level of well-being (of an individual, group or the population of a country) as measured by the level of income (for example, GNP per capita) or by the quantity of various goods and services consumed (for example, the number of cars per 1,000 people or the number of television sets per ... www.worldbank.org/depweb/english/beyond/global/glossary.html
This means doing things in a way now that lets people have the things they need but without reducing the ability of people in the future to meet their needs
Behaving in a way that doesn’t irreversibly damage the environment or use up resources faster than they can be replaced
Cities need so many resources so it is unlikely that they would ever be truly sustainable but things can be done to make the city and the way people live there more sustainable
SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMIC HOUSING EDUCATION HOSPITALS RECREATION TRANSPORT STANDARD OF LIVING QUALITY OF LIFE JOBS COSTS TRADE INDUSTRY BUSINESS NOISE, AIR, WATER POLLUTION WASTE, RECYCLING VISUAL POLLUTION LANDFILL NATURAL RESOURCES ENERGY IS THIS A SUSTAINABLE URBAN AREA ? Shouldn’t these circles overlap?
Planning issue 1 A housing area is to be redeveloped. Suggest some ideas for how it is going to be made more sustainable .
Provide a frequent, efficient, safe, reliable, comfortable and affordable public transport system.
Provide feeder services to housing estates
Transport that uses less fuel and give out less pollution e.g. some buses in London are powered by hydrogen and emit water vapour
Park and ride scheme
Bus lanes – faster journeys
Free bus passes for all pensioners and children to encourage use
Open a monorail, tram network, link transport at interchanges
Improve cycle routes and secure cycle parking near the city centre
Congestion charge for people wanting to drive into the city centre
Planning issue 3 A lot of energy is provided by power stations using fossil fuels. Suggest sustainable energy sources and strategies to use instead… Source: E.on's coal-fired Ratcliffe-on-Soar power station in Nottinghamshire. David Sillitoe/Guardian
Provide everyone with recycling bins for different types of waste e.g. paper, glass, tins…
Increase the council tax for people who have less in their recycling bin than their ‘normal’ bin.
Open a recycling centre, where people are paid for the rubbish that they bring e.g. glass bottles
Packaging which can be recycled
Planning issue 5 A piece of derelict land (brownfield site) that used to be a chemical works is going to be redeveloped. Suggest some projects that could improve the quality of life for people in the city. Page 216
People are much more likely to support sustainability initiatives like increased recycling or new public transport systems if they’re involved in making the decisions about them. Consult rather than impose
Put people first ask for and then act on their ideas.
Including local people makes the schemes more likely to succeed
Foster the growth of a community network
Key Features of a Socially Sustainable city * New homes are …………. * Community links are ……. * Wherever possible, ………are used instead of non-renewable resources . * Waste is seen as a resource and is ………wherever possible * Public transport is ………….
Areas of open space are………………….
* Resources and services in the city are ……………. PLENARY Blog
AQA spec A 2009 Increased public transport reduces the need for cars and so reduced traffic congestion and less air pollution / recycling of waste means less waste is put into landfills so having less environmental effect. 2 (c) 1x2. Max 1 for straight lift. (2 marks) e.g. Increased public transport reduces the need for cars and so reduced traffic congestion and therefore less air pollution Recycling of waste means less waste is put into landfills so less environmental effect.
2(c)(ii) Level 1 (Basic) 1–2 marks Simple lifts from the stimulus material and/or no reference to a named example. Knowledge of basic information Simple understanding Few links; limited detail; uses a limited range of specialist terms Limited evidence of sentence structure. Frequent spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors. There is less water produced. Pollution is reduced. Level 2 (Clear) 3–4 marks Linked statements, with at least the name of an appropriate example. Knowledge of accurate information Clear understanding Answers have some linkages; occasional detail/exemplar; uses some specialist terms where appropriate Clear evidence of sentence structure. Some spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors. In Curitiba in Brazil, there are lots of cheap buses to reduce the number of cars on the road, which reduces the emissions of greenhouse gases. Waste collectors can sell rubbish to recyclers for a profit so less goes into landfill sites.
2 marks 4 marks There is increased danger of accidents due to the greater number of vehicles on the road. The increase in the amount of traffic can lead to air pollution which impacts on peoples’ health . Buildings can be badly affected because of the increase in the amount of traffic. Discouraging people visiting/shopping in the settlement.
Level 1 (Basic) 1–2 marks Simple statements. Knowledge of basic information. Simple understanding Few links; limited detail; uses a limited range of specialist terms Limited evidence of sentence structure. Frequent spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors. Mass transport systems improve public transport. Pedestrianisation removes traffic from the street. Level 2 (Clear) 3–4 marks Linked statements, which clearly show how the solution described could reduce the traffic problem. Knowledge of accurate information Clear understanding Answers have some linkages; occasional detail/exemplar; uses some specialist terms where appropriate Clear evidence of sentence structure. Some spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors. Mass transit systems like the Tyneside Metro and the trams in Sheffield and Manchester are quick and efficient and are not held up by traffic jams and also reduce air pollution / Bus priority lanes speed up buses and so more people will use them reducing the need for so many cars to be on the road / Pedestrianising city centres makes them safer for pedestrians and reduces noise and air pollution / Increased car parking charges in the city centre will discourage car use and encourage more people to use public transport. The increased profit would be used to invest in better public transport systems.
AQA B 2009 Q6b How might the changes improve the environment and the lives of the people living there? 6 marks Explain why changes might bring disadvantages to some of the original residents 4 marks
6(b)(i) Level 1 (Basic) 1–2 marks Simple statements indicating the changes, usually directly from Figure 7 without any attempt to relate to the impact on the environment or the lives of the people. Pedestrian crossing trees planted overhead wires removed. Level 2 (Clear) 3–4 marks Linked statements but does not cover both the environment and the lives of the people. Bathrooms built to replace outdoor toilets making it more healthy Trees planted to improve the environment pedestrian crossing to make it safer to cross the road. Level 3 (Detailed) 5–6 marks Linked and elaborated statements covering both the environment and the lives of the people. Cul-de-sacs created in order to stop through traffic and build-outs into the street, which will slow the traffic and make it safer. Derelict land restored and some houses demolished to provide open spaces for children to play. The planting of trees will soften the landscape and make the environment more pleasant.
6(b)(ii) Level 1 (Basic) 1–2 marks Simple statements. Does not have to be confined to the changes shown in Figure 7. Loss of corner shops Loss of community spirit Increased cost of houses. Level 2 (Clear) 3–4 marks Linked statements. At least two changes/effects for full marks. People who have lived in the area for a long time have to move and there is a loss of community spirit where everybody knew everybody. The improved houses are more expensive to buy or rent so the local people cannot afford them. Gentrification takes place so that the richer yuppies move in and can cause conflict with the long standing inhabitants.
More information …. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1031438/ Pictured-The-floating-cities-day-house-climate-change-refugees.html http://geovideos.fliggo.com/video/AKMIer2Y Local Agenda 21 http://www.ace.mmu.ac.uk/eae/sustainability/Older/Local_Agenda21.htm BedZED http://www.bioregional.com/what-we-do/our-work/bedzed/