Rocks Introduction


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Rocks Introduction

  1. 1. Rocks Objectives: To understand that geological time is on a different scale to human time To know that rocks belong to one of three groups. Their formation is linked by the rock cycle To know the location of these within the UK. To be able to explain the links between different categories – the rock cycle Formation of limestone w/s
  2. 6. <ul><li> </li></ul>Weathering Weathering is the breakdown of rocks at the Earth’s surface, by the action of rainwater, extremes of temperature, and biological activity. It does not involve the removal of rock material. Erosion Erosion is the process by which soil and rock particles are worn away and moved elsewhere by gravity, or by a moving transport agent – wind, water or ice. Transport refers to the processes by which the sediment is moved along – for example, pebbles rolled along a river-bed or sea shore, sand grains whipped up by the wind, salts carried in solution. Deposition Deposition is the laying down of sediment carried by wind, water, or ice. Sediment can be transported as pebbles, sand & mud, or as salts dissolved in water. Salts may later be deposited by organic activity (e.g. as sea-shells) or by evaporation.
  3. 7. Sedimentary rocks <ul><li>These are formed from sediments that have fallen to the bottom of a sea or lake. These sediments could be sand, shells or even skeletons. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of sedimentary rocks are limestone, chalk, clay and sandstone </li></ul><ul><li>Complete the sheet: The formation of limestone </li></ul>
  4. 10. Metamorphic rocks <ul><li>These have been heated or squashed until they have changed to make a hard metamorphic rock </li></ul><ul><li>Examples include: schists, gneiss, marble, slate </li></ul>
  5. 12. Igneous rocks <ul><li>These have come from magma. Igneous rocks are either from lava that erupted from a volcano (like basalt, these are known as extrusive igneous rocks) Or from magma that cooled within the Earth’s crust (like granite, known as intrusive igneous rocks) </li></ul>
  6. 14. Britain, has in the past been covered by sea. At other times mountain ranges were formed with spectacular earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Our climate has changed, from tropical forest through deserts and floodplains to arctic tundra, as Britain was slowly moved around the globe. During all this time, the processes of the Rock Cycle have been active, producing a larger variety of rocks than in any other similar-sized area of the world!
  7. 15.   These markers indicate the location of examples of igneous rocks & scenery .        These markers indicate the location of examples of metamorphic rocks & scenery .        These markers indicate the locations of evidence of geological processes in action around Britain.   These markers indicate the location of examples of sedimentary rocks & scenery .        These markers indicate the location of examples of deformation & uplift .  
  8. 16. Your task…. <ul><li>On an outline map of the British Isles, shade and name two areas covered by each of the following rock types: </li></ul><ul><li>Granite </li></ul><ul><li>Carboniferous limestone </li></ul><ul><li>Chalk </li></ul><ul><li>Clay </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the differences between Highland and Lowland Britain using these headings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relief (height and shape of the land) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 17. <ul><li>2. Copy and complete the table: </li></ul>Metamorphic Sedimentary Igneous Where they were formed Brief description How they were formed Rock types found in the UK Main UK areas where rock outcrops occur