Revision paper 2 The European Union Mediterranean Spain Farming in Southern Italy Development of European Core – Rotterdam Links across English Channel The Wider World Amazonia Ganges Delta Japan – urbanisation and industrialisation Global issues : Population growth and urbanisation Aid, investment and international development Global warming – causes and consequences 2 hour paper
Heavy snowfall in the Himalayas FLOODING IN BANGLADESH 68% flooded including 2/3 of Dhaka 2m water 40 000km of roads destroyed 2379 died and 45 million affected 7.2 million homes destroyed Cost US $2 billion 2 million tonnes of rice lost June – Aug 1988 Low lying delta floods easily 3 draingage basins which total 1.76 million km 2 Early monsoon Densely populated due to good farming land Deforestation in Nepal reduces interception and increases soil erosion Rivers Ganges, Meghna and Brahmaputra 140 million live on floodplains 25 million homeless Global warming – rising sea levels
Form over warm tropical oceans 25 o C Very low pressure caused by rapid rising of warm moist air. Warm moist air rises and condenses as it cools releasing latent energy which increases uplift As it rises the air moves in an anticlockwise direction and travels N across Bay of Bengal Circulation due to earth’s spin Heavy rainfall 100mm in 24hrs High wind speeds 150 – 200km/h Cause severe flooding – made worse by tidal surges Summer high temperatures due to high angle of sun Land heats up Low pressure over land Air blows from high pressure over Bay of Bengal Onshore winds bring rain South West Monsoon Winter Sun at lower angle land cold, air above sinks High pressure develops Winds blow off shore Dry North East winds Flat, marshland River carries large load Fall in gradient Slower velocity Load deposited Channel blocked Distributaries Islands of silt Bay of Bengal – few currents Cyclone Monsoon Delta
Flooding in Bangladesh 1. SHORT TERM 1. Feeding programmes 2. Emergency shelter 3. Aid 2. LONG TERM 1. Flood Action Plan 2. Improved forecasting to enable better prediction 3. Reinforce coastal banks 4. Raise mounds on which people live 5. Improve roads 6. Build concrete storm shelters 7. Problem – money 1. SHORT TERM 1. Flooding 2. Drowning 3. Loss of homes 4. Loss of crops 5. Polluted drinking water 6.Loss of communications 2. LONG TERM 1. Starvation 2. Homelessness 3. Illness from polluted water 4. No seed for next year 5. No money 6. Loss of relatives 7. Trauma 1. Snowmelt in Himalayas 2. Deforestation increases surface run off 3. Soil erosion – increases surface run off 4. Heavy monsoon rain Solutions Consequence Causes
Green Revolution Aim: To use technology to increase food production Technological changes: Increased use of M achinery Increased I rrigation C hemical inputs H ybrid seeds Transport systems have improved in some areas Increased rural – urban migration – pressure on towns and cities Rich farmers who could afford seed, fertilizers and tractors - Farming is less sustainable Not so tall – withstand heavy wind and rain Mechanization leads to rural unemployment Commercial crops – grown and sold to raise income Poor become poorer – can’t afford seeds, fertilisers, machinery Yields more reliable variety of crops > variety of diet Susceptible to pests and diseases No. of crops grown / year - faster growing so extra crop can be grown each year Water supply – crops need relaible supply – eutrophication Increased use of irrigation can cause salinization of drinking water supplies + cost of irrigation Food prices – dropped – good for consumers Costs – fertilizers / pesticides Food production – large increase, wind, disease resistant, FAILURES SUCCESSES
Kolkata Transport Found at edge of urban area on poor quality land which is under constant threat from flooding 3 million live in bustees illegal Housing Densities high 150 000 per km 2 – overcrowding Narrow alleys Built of wattle Tiled roof, mud floor One room in which family eat and sleep Services infrastructure No electricity ¾ of Kolkata’s population have access to piped water Single street tap for 35 – 45 families in bustees Sanitation non-existent in bustees Old drains and pipes cracked Effluent runs down alleys, contaminating drinking water Rubbish rarely collected Health facilities l acking Diseases: Cholera, typhoid, dysentery,Tetanusmeasles Work Formal sector Informal sector self employed Street sellers, services Poor pay CAMDA location R. Hooghly Ganges Delta ¼ million have no home High infant mortality Most walk Public transport overcrowded Little schools and hopsital provision - money
Water pollution in Japan Govt gives financial aid and medical help to remove worries of living in area Victims paid £155 000 compensation by Chisso Co. Research institute set up 1.5 m 3 of contaminated sediment dredged from the bed of Minamata bay 1970 Water pollution control law passed to stop discharge of Mercury and Cadmium etc Solution Fishing industry destroyed People left the town of Minamata – population went from 50 000 to 32 000 Blindness, deformed limbs, loss of co-ordination Brain damage By 1997 the shellfish and fish had affected 3000 people Effect P hysical E conomic E nvironmental S ocial Discovered 1970 Bacteria changed mercury waste into methyl mercury Company expanded rapidly Cheaper to pay off fishermen than to process waste 1932 Chisso Company began releasing toxic mercury waste into Minamata Bay Cause Manufactured fertilisers, petrochemical and plastics and drugs Chisso (nitrogen) Company 1956 Minamata Bay, W. Kyushu Fact
Emphasis on smaller practical developments CAP Pays subsidies to farmers based on quantity they produce Does not encourage them to grow high quality produce needed by market Too much growing of low quality crops of tobacco, olives, wine and wheat Bought by CAP and stored. 40% Farming Improve quality of olive and vine growing Improve animal care – veterinary care Improve marketing 33% off farm jobs Crafts, small scale industry, tourism industry 27% Improving fishing Extending forestry Education and training 56% Farming improvements 1. Re-distributed land from absentee landlords 5ha if good land & could be irrigated 5+ha if poor land <5ha if already had land or job 2. Loans for improvement 3. Agricultural colleges set up 4. Reforestation schemes and river control schemes to reduce soil erosion and flooding 20% infrastructure Roads - Autostradi Water supply for domestic use and irrigation 24% industrial dev’t, educ, health Increase employment opportunities- growth poles… steel plants Increase local market for agric. produce Communita Montana IMP Aim: to modernise farming in S. of EU Cassa per il Mezzogiorno Aim: to improve conditions in South
Why is Mezzogiorno still poor by EU standards?
Farming tends to be done by older generation and attracts few young people
Increased mechanisation has led to increased unemployment – there re few alternative jobs
Although many former emigrants have returned home wealthy the area is receiving numerous immigrants from poorer countries in Africa and Middle East
Ground is unstable with soil erosion, landslides and earthquakes
This is a peripheral area in EU , a long way from main markets. Has received little real help from CAP
Why are there inequalities in levels of development across parts of EU?
Economic – countries with raw materials or energy resources were the first to develop industrially. With increasing wealth they were able to buy resources, provide jobs, develop transport and new technologies
Social - The more a country develops, the more it has to spend on education, health and better quality housing
Political - Countries were likely to develop more quickly if they had a government that was stable, invested in the economy and avoided civil war.
Within Europe, one important reason for the differences in development is the employment structure of countries. Countries with lowest HDI scores were those where large numbers work in agriculture and farm size is relatively small.
How the EU attempt to reduce differences:
Common Agricultural Policy
Create a single market in which agricultural products cold move freely
make EU more self sufficient by reducing imports
Support EU farmers financially – guaranteed prices
Increase field size, farm size and farmers income
2. The European Investment Bank The bank uses money from other countries to grant loans for projects in periphery. It supports large scale developments e.g. the building of Taranto steelworks 3. Structural Funds These are used to ‘top up’ regional and national programmes in peripheral areas which are behind in terms of development. They may be declining industrial areas or rural areas in need of development to improve living standards. Used to finance Integrated Mediterranean Programme