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  • 1. What are the issues for people living in urban areas in richer parts of the world? References AQA A pg 198 – 199 B&P pg 160 CGP pg 87
  • 2. Lesson Objectives
    • All will understand the range and nature of problems in urban areas in richer countries.
    • Most will understand what strategies have been introduced to deal with the first of these problems.
    • Some will be able to justify their solution to this problem .
  • 3. What’s the problem?
    • Use the photos and your own knowledge of Birmingham’s problems to come up with a list of the issues that affect urban areas.
  • 4.  
  • 5.  
  • 6.  
  • 7.  
  • 8.  
  • 9. Many urban areas face the same problems:
    • A shortage of good quality housing
    • Run down CBDs
    • Traffic congestion and pollution
    • Multicultural Mix - segregation
  • 10. Issue 1: Housing
    • Population in the UK has increased by 7% since 1971. Over the same period, the number of households has risen by 30%. This increase in the number of households is due to the number of people who now are living alone.
    • People are now leaving home to rent
    • buy younger than previously
    • marrying later
    • getting divorced
    • living longer.
    • Consequently, there is a real shortage of housing in England, particularly in the South East. With more and more people trying to get a home, prices have escalated so many young people can no longer get onto the property ladder. The government as set a target of building 240,000 new houses every year by 2016 so that supply meets this ever increasing demand.
  • 11. Housing
    • The UK is facing a housing crisis as the demand for
    • homes continues to exceed supply.
    • Reasons:
    now 1950 10% 1 adult 15 million 50 million 30% 1 adult More people live alone 25 million The total households are rising >60 million The total population is increasing
  • 12. Key Terms
    • Household
    • A person living alone, or two or more people living at the same address, sharing a sitting room.
    • Brownfield sites
    • Land that has been built on before and is to be cleared and reused. These sites are often in the inner city.
    • Greenfield sites
    • Land that has not been built on before, usually in the countryside on the edge of the built-up area.
  • 13. How can the government tackle the housing shortage?
    • Urban renewal schemes
    • Used widely in 1990’s.
    • Encourage investment in new housing, services and employment in derelict inner city areas
    • e.g. London Docklands development. Derelict docks (brownfield sites) were converted into high quality housing with good local services
    • Liverpool Docks, Cardiff Bay
    New Towns Brand new towns were built to house the overspill populations from existing towns and cities where there was a shortage of housing. e.g. Milton Keynes – started in 1970 Redditch Relocation incentives Used to encourage people living in large council houses (who don’t need a big house or to live in the city) to move out of urban areas e.g. A London council encourages older people who live in big houses near the city to move to the seaside or countryside. The council helps the people who volunteer and provides some financial incentive
  • 14.
    • The need for housing is not equal throughout the UK – more houses are needed in London and around SE England
    • Government policy is to use brownfield sites where possible to save the countryside from further urban sprawl (why?)
    • Inner city areas have a large supply of brownfield sites. Some of the largest spaces are to be found in abandoned dockland and industrial areas. Here former warehouses can be converted into modern apartments. The environment around the area is cleaned up and landscaped. Wealthy people then tend to move back into areas of former decay = gentrification
    • Some unused brownfield sites such as buildings of historical interest can also be renovated and used for luxury flats and up market hotels e.g., St Pancras railway station, the Rotunda in B’ham.
    Dilemma – where to build brownfield or greenfield?
  • 15. Your task …
    • Draw a table to show the advantages of building on brownfield and greenfield sites (AQA A pg 199)
    Cuts commuting costs Some shops and business parks on outskirts provide local facilities Utilities such as water and electricity are already provided No restrictions of existing road network sites in cities are not left derelict and / or empty New sites do not need clearing so can be cheaper to prepare Easier to get planning permission as councils want to see brownfield sites used Land cheaper on outskirts so plots can be larger Roads exist More space for gardens Near to facilities in city centre – shops, work, entertainment Greenfield sites Brownfield sites
  • 16. Your task…
    • Why is there a housing problem in the UK? (why is the demand for housing likely to increase significantly in the next few years?)
    • Where is this problem greatest?
    • What is a ‘brownfield site’?
    • What are the advantages and disadvantages of building new houses on a brownfield site?
    • What is a greenfield site?
    • What are the advantages and disadvantages of greenfield sites?
    • Name examples in the Birmingham / Solihull area of both brownfield and greenfield development sites
    • What has been the local reaction to such developments?
    • Which is more sustainable – brownfield or greenfield sites? Explain your choice.
  • 17. Debate
    • You’ll be allocated to argue either for building the new homes in Dorridge or in Digbeth. In your group, come up with a set of arguments to support your choice.
    • As you come up with your arguments copy and fill in the table on the next slide. You’ll then need to fill in the opposite side during the debate.
    Should 8000 new homes in the West Midlands be built on a greenfield site on the edge of Dorridge or on a brownfield site in Digbeth?
  • 18. Advantages of building in Dorridge (a greenfield site) Advantages of building in Digbeth (a brownfield site)
  • 19. Your Opinion
    • Write a paragraph explaining and justifying your opinion .
  • 20. Lesson Objectives
    • All will understand the range and nature of problems in urban areas in richer countries.
    • Most will understand what strategies have been introduced to deal with the first of these problems.
    • Some will be able to justify their solution to this problem.