Population in the UK has increased by 7% since 1971. Over the same period, the number of households has risen by 30%. This increase in the number of households is due to the number of people who now are living alone.
People are now leaving home to rent
buy younger than previously
Consequently, there is a real shortage of housing in England, particularly in the South East. With more and more people trying to get a home, prices have escalated so many young people can no longer get onto the property ladder. The government as set a target of building 240,000 new houses every year by 2016 so that supply meets this ever increasing demand.
A person living alone, or two or more people living at the same address, sharing a sitting room.
Land that has been built on before and is to be cleared and reused. These sites are often in the inner city.
Land that has not been built on before, usually in the countryside on the edge of the built-up area.
How can the government tackle the housing shortage?
Urban renewal schemes
Used widely in 1990’s.
Encourage investment in new housing, services and employment in derelict inner city areas
e.g. London Docklands development. Derelict docks (brownfield sites) were converted into high quality housing with good local services
Liverpool Docks, Cardiff Bay
New Towns Brand new towns were built to house the overspill populations from existing towns and cities where there was a shortage of housing. e.g. Milton Keynes – started in 1970 Redditch Relocation incentives Used to encourage people living in large council houses (who don’t need a big house or to live in the city) to move out of urban areas e.g. A London council encourages older people who live in big houses near the city to move to the seaside or countryside. The council helps the people who volunteer and provides some financial incentive
The need for housing is not equal throughout the UK – more houses are needed in London and around SE England
Government policy is to use brownfield sites where possible to save the countryside from further urban sprawl (why?)
Inner city areas have a large supply of brownfield sites. Some of the largest spaces are to be found in abandoned dockland and industrial areas. Here former warehouses can be converted into modern apartments. The environment around the area is cleaned up and landscaped. Wealthy people then tend to move back into areas of former decay = gentrification
Some unused brownfield sites such as buildings of historical interest can also be renovated and used for luxury flats and up market hotels e.g., St Pancras railway station, the Rotunda in B’ham.
Dilemma – where to build brownfield or greenfield?
Draw a table to show the advantages of building on brownfield and greenfield sites (AQA A pg 199)
Cuts commuting costs Some shops and business parks on outskirts provide local facilities Utilities such as water and electricity are already provided No restrictions of existing road network sites in cities are not left derelict and / or empty New sites do not need clearing so can be cheaper to prepare Easier to get planning permission as councils want to see brownfield sites used Land cheaper on outskirts so plots can be larger Roads exist More space for gardens Near to facilities in city centre – shops, work, entertainment Greenfield sites Brownfield sites