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  • 1. How does land use vary in an urban area?
  • 2. Syllabus
    • Key idea
    • Urban areas have a variety of functions and land uses
    • Specification content
    • Students should gain an appreciation of different functional parts of a settlement including locations of CBD, inner city, suburbs and rural-urban fringe.
  • 3. References
    • BP page 156-7
    • AQA A pg 196-7
    • CGP pg 86
  • 4. Lesson Objectives
    • All will understand what we mean by the terms land use and function .
    • Most will understand how urban areas have a variety of functions.
    • Some will be able to use maps to predict the characteristics and locations of some areas .
  • 5. Key Terms
    • What does the term “land use” mean?
    • The types of buildings or other features that are found in an area, e.g. terraced housing, banks, industrial estates, roads, parks.
    • What does the term “function” mean?
    • The purpose of an area, e.g. for residential use, recreation or shopping.
  • 6. Predicting how land use changes in an urban area
    • In every town and city land use varies from one area to the next. In some areas, shops and offices dominate, others are used for housing, industry or recreation.
    • In Britain, we can predict what land use will be found in different areas of cities just by looking at a map. This is because cities such as Birmingham or Manchester have often grown in a very similar way.
  • 7. Urban land use models A model is a simplified version of reality. These diagrams show the land use patterns that you might expect to find in a city in an MEDC. The land use of a real city would never exactly correspond to the patterns suggested by Burgess and Hoyt - why not?
  • 8. CBD characteristics
    • Centre of city - most accessible part
    • Road and rail routes converge
    • Prime site for several types of land use
    • Very competitive – high land values
    • Limited space
    • Tall buildings
    • Users:
    • Commercial centre
    • large department stores and specialist shops which have a high turnover, high profit margin or large threshold population
    • banks, offices
    • Little residential
    • Problems :
    • Congestion – which reduces accessibility and attractiveness to shop or work
  • 9. pedestrianisation Tall buildings Information signs vegetation Vertical zoning
  • 10. Old inner city areas
    • Most inner city areas developed along with industry in 19 th Century
    • Rural urban migration led to demand for low cost housing
    • Housing built as close as possible together – high density, grid iron
    • Poorer quality housing
    • 1960s tower blocks, old industrial buildings
    • Few amenities – indoor toilet, bathroom, running water, sewerage or electricity, gardens or open space
    • Problems: damp, overcrowding, lack of sanitation, pollution
    • Run down
    • Some newer housing and industry where derelict land has been cleared and redeveloped e.g. London Docklands.
  • 11. Industry
    • Large factories were build on the nearest available land to the town centre
    • Next to canals
    • And railways – transport bulky raw materials and processed goods
    • Besides rivers – source of power, washing, cooling, waste disposal
    • Near land that could be used to house the large umbers of workers
    • Factories forced to close due to:
    • Lack of space for expansion / modernisation
    • Narrow congested roads
    • Some have been left empty
    • Some bulldozed to leave large areas of derelict land – brownfield site
  • 12. canal River railway Industrial sites Victorian terraced housing
  • 13.
    • Attempts to improve living conditions:
    • 1960s – slum clearance and building high rise flats (urban redevelopment)
    • Improving existing properties – urban renewal
    Highgate
  • 14. Inner Suburbs
    • Developed during the inter-war period.
    • Grew due to the introduction of public transport and use of car.
    • Outward growth = urban sprawl.
    • Many interwar houses were semi-detached, with bay windows, front and back gardens
  • 15. Outer suburbs
    • Private housing estates are characterised by low density, high quality housing
    • Large, detached
    • Land is cheaper
    • Close enough for people to commute to city centre
    • Modern amenities – central heating, double glazing, bathrooms, kitchen
    • Large gardens to both rear and front of property
    • Double garage
    • Middle class
    • More pleasant, greener environment, less crime or pollution
  • 16. Rural –Urban fringe
    • After 1960s urban sprawl continued with land on rural-urban fringe being used for:
    • Modern housing estates or outer-city council housing
    • New industrial or trading estates.
  • 17. Your task
    • Look at the O.S map of Birmingham and the photos on your handout. Complete the activities on the sheet.
  • 18.  
  • 19. Homework
    • Draw a simple sketch map of Birmingham to show the different land uses in different areas (retail, residential, industrial, etc)
  • 20. Lesson Objectives
    • All will understand what we mean by the terms land use and function .
    • Most will understand how urban areas have a variety of functions.
    • Some will be able to use maps to predict the characteristics and locations of some areas.
  • 21. Plenary - In which area of a city are you most likely to…
    • Get your car stolen?
    • See a fox at night?
    • See a Porsche car parked?
    • Have a school with good exam grades?
    • Have people complaining about noise from their neighbours?
    • See empty McDonalds wrappers?
    • Be able to buy milk at 10.30 at night?
    • Be able to catch a bus to visit friends anywhere in the city?
    • See a police car with it's blue lights flashing?
    • Be able to buy drugs?