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L15 air and water pollution
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L15 air and water pollution

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  • 1. What are the problems of rapid urbanisation in poorer parts of the world?
  • 2. Syllabus
    • Key idea:
    • Rapid urbanisation in a poorer part of the world requires the management of the environmental problems caused.
    • Specification content:
    • Effects and management of air and water pollution.
  • 3. Learning outcomes
    • All will understand that rapidly expanding cities produce large amounts of air pollution and waste which ends up in rivers.
    • Most will understand that there are a variety of ways to try to deal with both air and water pollution.
    • Some will understand that some ways of dealing with water pollution is very difficult because of the complexity of people’s interactions with the rivers.
  • 4. From “Slowly Down the Ganges” by Eric Newby
  • 5. Water pollution - The River Ganges (1)
    • Contains untreated sewage, cremated remains, chemicals and disease causing microbes.
    • Cows wade in the river
    • People wash their laundry in it
    • People drink from it
    • Water pollution:
    • Kills fish which disrupts food chains
    • Harmful chemicals can build up in the food chain and poison humans who eat fish from the polluted water
    • Contamination of water supplies can spread diseases
    • Management of the pollution
    • This can involve:
    • building sewage treatment
    • plants passing laws forcing factories to remove pollutants from their waste water.
  • 6. Water pollution (2)
    • Limits to water pollution need to be identified and enforced
    • 1986 the Ganga Action Plan sought to introduce water treatment works on the R. Ganges.
    • However, the increasing population was not taken into account and water quality has since deteriorated.
    • In Shanghai the Huangpu river is the main water supply for the city, and in the last 10 years water quality has fallen as 4 million m3 of untreated human waste enter it daily. The Huangpu and Suzhou rivers have been the target for improving water quality. A World Bank loan of $200 million was granted in 2000
  • 7. Air pollution – Shanghai, China (1)
    • Industry is responsible for 70% of the country’s carbon dioxide emissions.
    • 73% of electricity is produced by coal fired power stations
    • Air pollution can:
    • Lead to acid rain which damages buildings and vegetation
    • Causes health problems – headaches, bronchitis
    • Some pollutants destroy the ozone layer which protects from the sun’s harmful rays
    • Management
    • Set air quality standards for industries and constantly monitor levels
  • 8. Air pollution (2)
    • Most industrial production is in the biggest cities and there is a need to encourage the use of new technologies that can reduce emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide.
    • - switching to cleaner, alternative sources of energy
    • Using low sulphur coal
    • Monitoring and safety checks
    • Limits set and enforced on emission levels
    • Companies monitored to ensure emissions of CO 2 and SO 2 are reduced
    • Effective strategies implemented to reduce traffic fumes – limiting the number of cars
    • - congestion charges
  • 9. Solutions
    • Turn your book on its side and draw the table below in your books. Cut out the solutions from the sheet and stick them in your book in the correct category. Then shade green the successful solutions and red the unsuccessful ones.
    Water Pollution Air Pollution Waste Disposal
  • 10. Key Terms Match the terms on your sheet A process in which an increasing proportion of the population are employed in the manufacturing sector of the economy A means of disposing of waste by digging a large hole in the ground and then lining it before filling it with rubbish Collection and subsequent reprocessing of products such as paper, aluminum cans, plastic containers and mobile phones, instead of throwing them away Putting harmful substances into the air such as carbon dioxide Companies that spread their operations around the world in an attempt to reduce costs Putting poisonous substances into water courses such as sewage, industrial effluent and harmful chemicals Safely getting rid of unwanted items such as solid waste Water Pollution Transnational Corporations (TNCs) Air Pollution Recycling Landfill Disposal of Waste Industrialisation
  • 11. Exam question