What are the problems of rapid
urbanisation in poorer parts of
Rapid urbanisation in a poorer part of the world
requires the management of the environmental
Difficulties of disposal of waste, much of which
Effects and management of air and water
• All will understand that rapidly
expanding cities produce large amounts
of waste, of varying sorts.
• Most will understand that there are a
variety of ways to try to deal with this
• Some will understand that some ways of
dealing with waste are more sustainable
What problem (linked to rapid urbanisation) is shown?
Problems of rapid urbanisation
Expanding cities and industrialisation can lead to
problems of air and water pollution and disposal of
Waste disposal – people in cities create a lot of waste.
This can damage people’s health and the environment,
especially if toxic and not disposed of properly.
Air pollution – burning fossil fuels, exhausts and
Water pollution – sewage and toxic chemicals from
industry can get into rivers and streams.
Non-existent or poor regulations and a lack of planning
for an environmental emergency make problems worse
Waste disposal (1)
In richer countries, waste is disposed of by:
• burying it in landfill sites
• burning it
• recycling schemes
Poorer countries struggle to dispose of the large amount of waste
created by rapid urbanisation because of:
Money – simply cant afford to dispose of waste safely – money is
needed for more urgent problems e.g. health care
Infrastructure – poorer countries don’t have the infrastructure
needed e.g. poor road sin squatter settlements mean waste disposal
lorries can’t get in to remove rubbish.
Scale – the problem is HUGE
Waste disposal (2)
Waste provides a resource and a means of
making a living for many shanty dwellers in poor
Children and adults scavenge and extract
materials and then reuse or resell them.
Car tyres may be made into sandals
Food waste is fed to animals or used as a
fertiliser on vegetable plots
Toxic waste and its safe disposal is a key issue
in areas where the manufacturing industry is
Electronic waste …
Creation of electronic waste is another major problem in
a rapidly industrialising country like India
In the cities, India’s poor scrape a living by breaking
down PCs and monitors.
They boil, crush or burn parts in order to extract
valuable materials like gold or platinum.
What they don’t realise is that the toxic chemicals
inside like cadmium and lead can pose serious health
India’s hospitals are starting to see patients with 10 x
the expected level of lead in their blood.
Dumping and unsupervised recycling of e-waste is
literally leading to a brain drain
What happens to some recycled
Britain gives China a toxic shock Sky news
• Blood sweat and luxuries
Use AQA A book p210 (2nd paragraph) and p211 to make
a poster or leaflet to show the issues of waste disposal
in LEDC cities.
1. Why waste is a problem
2. What kinds of waste
3. Give some facts and figures about amount of waste
4. What are the dangers for people who try to make a
living from waste in LEDC cities
5. What is being done about the problem
6. How successful are these measures?