Kielder Water Case Study Rivers are managed to provide a water supply.  There are a variety of issues resulting from this.
Lesson objectives <ul><li>To know areas of deficit and areas of surplus within the UK and to understand the need for trans...
Rainfall map of t Rainfall map of the United Kingdom   Fig 1. - Annual precipitation over Great Britain he United Kingdom ...
UPLAND RESERVOIR – CASE STUDY: KIELDER RESERVOIR
KIELDER – UPLAND RESERVOIR <ul><li>The demand for water by industries (especially oil and chemical industries of Teeside) ...
<ul><li>Other uses were found for Kielder: </li></ul><ul><li>Regulating the flow of the Tyne.   It stores water to reduce ...
Kielder Water – an UPLAND RESERVOIR http://www.heinemann.co.uk/shared/Resources/NonSecure/00000000/GCSEGeogAQABch1.pdf
Site selected in Cheviot Hills due to: <ul><li>Large flat-bottomed valley with steep sides </li></ul><ul><li>Base rock – i...
Key Facts and Statistics : <ul><li>Construction period 7 years </li></ul><ul><li>Number of trees felled 1,500 000 </li></u...
 
Why was it necessary? <ul><li>Back in the 1960s the thought the North East of England would run short of water because of ...
Good and Bad Points… Also generates HEP to supply homes and industry in the region. No problem of water shortage in NE Eng...
Upland reservoirs – Kielder (N.E) <ul><li>Using an example of an upland reservoir that you have studied, explain the  phys...
Detailed, elaborated or linked statements with precise reference to case study exemplar. Must cover both physical and huma...
1980s – A multipurpose scheme <ul><li>Due to economic recession the demand for water by industries was less than expected....
 
<ul><li>Using the 43km shoreline, the water and Kielder forest as resources to encourage tourism and recreation.  Receives...
Tasks… <ul><li>Produce a cost – benefit analysis for Kielder Water </li></ul><ul><li>Summarise your findings </li></ul>Eco...
Homework <ul><li>Does Kielder Water provide a sustainable water supply?  Explain your answer </li></ul>
Upland reservoirs – Kielder (N.E) <ul><li>2006 Many urban areas get their water from upland reservoirs. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Detailed elaborated or linked statements with precise reference to case study exemplar. Must cover both physical and human...
<ul><li>http://www.geogonline.org.uk/wlp_kielder_min.html </li></ul>Plenary….
bibliography <ul><li>GeoActive series 7 Autumn issue unit 129 Kielder water </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding Geography Bowe...
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L12 Kielder Water Case Study

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Transcript of "L12 Kielder Water Case Study"

  1. 1. Kielder Water Case Study Rivers are managed to provide a water supply. There are a variety of issues resulting from this.
  2. 2. Lesson objectives <ul><li>To know areas of deficit and areas of surplus within the UK and to understand the need for transfer. </li></ul><ul><li>To explain the economic, social and environmental issues surrounding Kielder Reservoir. </li></ul><ul><li>To understand the need for sustainable supplies of water </li></ul>
  3. 3. Rainfall map of t Rainfall map of the United Kingdom   Fig 1. - Annual precipitation over Great Britain he United Kingdom   Fig 1. - Annual precipitation over Great Britain Heaviest rainfall Areas with most cloud cover Lowest summer temperatures – less loss of water due to evaporation or transpiration Areas with low population density WATER SURPLUS WATER DEFICIT Demand > Supply Rainfall is lower Evaporation and transpiration is high 1/3 UK population lives in SE IN THE WEST IN THE EAST
  4. 4. UPLAND RESERVOIR – CASE STUDY: KIELDER RESERVOIR
  5. 5. KIELDER – UPLAND RESERVOIR <ul><li>The demand for water by industries (especially oil and chemical industries of Teeside) and domestic users in the northeast of England was expected to exceed supply by 1981 </li></ul><ul><li>Scheme involved two stages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>building the dam and creating Kielder Reservoir </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pumping water through huge pipes 8km uphill from the R.Tyne to a holding reservoir Airy Holm Headpond From here water is transferred through 40km of tunnels to R.Wear and Tees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water to be used in industries such as Nissan car plant and Sunderland (Weardale) and oil refineries at Middlesbrough (Teeside) </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Other uses were found for Kielder: </li></ul><ul><li>Regulating the flow of the Tyne. It stores water to reduce the flood risk downstream and water is released during periods of low river discharge. </li></ul><ul><li>Constructing a small HEP scheme which produced enough power (6,000kw) to satisfy a town of 10 000 population. Opened 1984 </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife conservation . The Bakthin Arm is managed to conserve wildlife and boating etc is not allowed. </li></ul><ul><li>Using the 43km shoreline, the water and Kielder forest as resources to encourage tourism and recreation . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>300 000 visitors per year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3rd most popular tourist attraction in Northumbria. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities include water ski-ing, yachting, forest walks, orienteering, picnic sites, cycling, horse riding, camping and caravanning. Leaplish and Tower Knowe have become ‘honeypots’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employment opportunities – water sports instruction, information centres, accommodation etc. The only other employment is in the timber industry and farming which employ few people. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Kielder Water – an UPLAND RESERVOIR http://www.heinemann.co.uk/shared/Resources/NonSecure/00000000/GCSEGeogAQABch1.pdf
  8. 8. Site selected in Cheviot Hills due to: <ul><li>Large flat-bottomed valley with steep sides </li></ul><ul><li>Base rock – impermeable volcanic rock Whinsill </li></ul><ul><li>High annual rainfall >1370mm pa </li></ul><ul><li>Sparsely populated </li></ul><ul><li>Marginal land – could only be used for forestry and rough grazing. </li></ul><ul><li>Large water catchment area </li></ul><ul><li>Local deposits of boulder clay, sand and gravel needed in the dam construction </li></ul>
  9. 9. Key Facts and Statistics : <ul><li>Construction period 7 years </li></ul><ul><li>Number of trees felled 1,500 000 </li></ul><ul><li>Families re-housed 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Height of dam wall 50 metres </li></ul><ul><li>Length of dam 1.2km </li></ul><ul><li>Surface area of Kielder Water1084 hectares </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply capability up to 1.2million m3 of water a day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Length of shoreline created 43km </li></ul><ul><li>Opened 1982 </li></ul><ul><li>Length of reservoir 10km </li></ul><ul><li>Volume of water 190 million litres </li></ul><ul><li>(took 18 months to fill) </li></ul>
  10. 11. Why was it necessary? <ul><li>Back in the 1960s the thought the North East of England would run short of water because of all its heavy industries like steel making and ship building. </li></ul><ul><li>By the time the scheme was built all these industries had closed. </li></ul><ul><li>It looked like they had too much water supply. </li></ul><ul><li>However, in the 1990s there was a drought in Yorkshire and they bought water from Kielder. </li></ul><ul><li>It looked that the planners had been far sighted and met future needs after all. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people still argue the scheme was a waste of money. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Good and Bad Points… Also generates HEP to supply homes and industry in the region. No problem of water shortage in NE England. Can sell water to other parts of the UK Created jobs in tourism – big visitor attraction Multi purpose scheme – water supply, flood control, tourism and forestry. Good One and a half million trees were cut down to make way for the lake. Not really needed so a waste of money? The reservoir has never been less than 90% full. Displaced farming communities Flooded a beautiful valley – an area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Bad
  12. 13. Upland reservoirs – Kielder (N.E) <ul><li>Using an example of an upland reservoir that you have studied, explain the physical and human advantages of its location. </li></ul>2006 Many urban areas get their water from upland reservoirs.
  13. 14. Detailed, elaborated or linked statements with precise reference to case study exemplar. Must cover both physical and human advantages of the location. Expect reasonable balance between the two for full marks <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL Kielder Water is in the relatively narrow valley of the River North Tyne so the size and cost of building the dam was relatively small. </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL The local geology is whinstone, which is impermeable so the water does not drain away. </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL The high rainfall of over 1000mm meant that there was an ample supply of water. </li></ul><ul><li>HUMAN The area was sparsely populated so when the valley was flooded there was not too much disruption to the local population. </li></ul><ul><li>HUMAN The water could be used in the densely populated industrial areas of North East England which are near by. </li></ul><ul><li>HUMAN The population of the north east could also use the reservoir for leisure pursuits such as fishing and sailing </li></ul>
  14. 15. 1980s – A multipurpose scheme <ul><li>Due to economic recession the demand for water by industries was less than expected. Other uses were found for Kielder: </li></ul><ul><li>Regulating the flow of the Tyne. It stores water to reduce the flood risk downstream and water is released during periods of low river discharge. </li></ul><ul><li>Constructing a small HEP scheme which produced enough power (6,000kw) to satisfy a town of 10 000 population. Opened 1984 Kielder Hydro Site </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife conservation. The Bakthin Arm is managed to conserve wildlife and boating etc is not allowed. </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>Using the 43km shoreline, the water and Kielder forest as resources to encourage tourism and recreation. Receives 300 000 visitors per year. 3rd most popular tourist attraction in Northumbria. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities include water ski-ing, yachting, forest walks, orienteering, picnic sites, cycling, horse riding, camping and caravanning. Leaplish and Tower Knowe have become ‘honeypots’ </li></ul><ul><li>Employment opportunities – water sports instruction, information centres, accommodation etc. The only other employment is in the timber industry and farming which employ few people </li></ul>Social and economic considerations
  16. 18. Tasks… <ul><li>Produce a cost – benefit analysis for Kielder Water </li></ul><ul><li>Summarise your findings </li></ul>Economic Environmental Social benefit Cost
  17. 19. Homework <ul><li>Does Kielder Water provide a sustainable water supply? Explain your answer </li></ul>
  18. 20. Upland reservoirs – Kielder (N.E) <ul><li>2006 Many urban areas get their water from upland reservoirs. </li></ul><ul><li>Using an example of an upland reservoir that you have studied, explain the physical and human advantages of its location. </li></ul>
  19. 21. Detailed elaborated or linked statements with precise reference to case study exemplar. Must cover both physical and human advantages of the location. Expect reasonable balance between the two for full marks <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL Kielder Water is in the relatively narrow valley of the River North Tyne so the size and cost of building the dam was relatively small. </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL The local geology is shale, which is impermeable so the water does not drain away. </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL The high rainfall of over 1000mm meant that there was an ample supply of water. </li></ul><ul><li>HUMAN The area was sparsely populated so when the valley was flooded there was not too much disruption to the local population. </li></ul><ul><li>HUMAN The water could be used in the densely populated industrial areas of North East England which are near by. </li></ul><ul><li>HUMAN The population of the north east could also use the reservoir for leisure pursuits such as fishing and sailing </li></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>http://www.geogonline.org.uk/wlp_kielder_min.html </li></ul>Plenary….
  21. 23. bibliography <ul><li>GeoActive series 7 Autumn issue unit 129 Kielder water </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding Geography Bowen and Pallister pg 95 </li></ul>

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