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L11 Uk Water Supply And Demand
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L11 Uk Water Supply And Demand

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    L11 Uk Water Supply And Demand L11 Uk Water Supply And Demand Presentation Transcript

    • UK water management Key idea: Rivers are managed to provide a water supply. There are a variety of issues resulting from this. Need blank UK map
    • Objectives:
      • To explain why there is an increasing demand for water in the UK.
      • Know and be able to map areas of deficit and areas of surplus.
      • To explain the need for transfer and give one example.
      • To know details of Kielder Water as a case study of a dam/reservoir
      • Be able to explain the resulting economic, social and environmental issues
      • To be able to explain why there is the need for sustainable supplies.
      • 2000Q3 OLD AQA SPEC B
      • (i) Using only evidence from Fig 4, describe the distribution of the reservoirs shown (2)
      • (ii) Name a reservoir on Fig 4 that is in the Lake District (1)
      • (iii) In the 1990s there were water shortages in parts of the UK. Give three reasons that help to explain this (3)
      • b. In some parts of the UK groundwater supplies are more important than surface reservoirs. Explain why (5)
    • Water storage – key terms
      • Porous – rock with spaces between the particles which make up the rock
      • Permeable – rock which allows water to pass through the pore spaces
      • Pervious – rock which allows water to pass through via cracks
      • Impermeable – rock which does not allow water to pass through
      • Groundwater - water stored underground in areas of permeable rock
      • Water Stress – see page 121
      • Areas of deficit - see page 121
      • Areas of surplus - see page 121
      • ¾ of UK’s water supply comes from mountain lakes, upland reservoirs and rivers
      • 25% comes from underground stores
    • Ref pg 120 / 121 AQA A Demand for water is increasing for the following reasons:
      • UK’s population now exceeds 60 million
      • Water consumption per head is high
      • Increased domestic use – dishwashers, washing machines, garden hoses etc
      • Increased use in farming – with hotter and drier summers arable farmers are using irrigation for crops
      • Increased electricity demand and therefore generation – thermal and nuclear both use water for cooling
    • Rainfall map of t Rainfall map of the United Kingdom   Fig 1. - Annual precipitation over Great Britain he United Kingdom   Fig 1. - Annual precipitation over Great Britain Heaviest rainfall Areas with most cloud cover Lowest summer temperatures – less loss of water due to evaporation or transpiration Areas with low population density WATER SURPLUS WATER DEFICIT Demand > Supply Rainfall is lower Evaporation and transpiration is high 1/3 UK population lives in SE IN THE WEST IN THE EAST
    • homework
      • It is clear that the demand for water is increasing. What can be done to increase supplies? Go to www.bbc.co.uk/news
      • Research how we and water companies can be more water efficient
    • how can supply/demand be managed?
      • Water companies are reducing leaks , each day, millions of litres are lost through leaking pipes
      • Build more reservoirs
      • As consumers we are being encouraged to be more efficient in our use of water
      • Demand can be satisfied by water transfers
      • Community tanks at end of streets with electric swipe cards so that only those people on the street have access to that supply
      • recycling
      • How are we encouraged to be more efficient in our use of water?
      • Transferring water by pipeline is costly
      • Some aqueducts were build many years ago.
    • How are we encouraged to be more efficient in our use of water? *rainwater can be collected *bathwater can be recycled to flush toilets *showers use less water than taking a bath – heads that limit water * Houses are being designed with better water efficiency * Devices are fitted to toilet cisterns to reduce water use *water meter – charge people for the exact volume of water that they use households with a water meter use less water - on average, 19 litres per person per day less *hose pipe bans * Education – TV ads
      • A traditional solution to unequal supply of water has been to transfer water from areas of surplus to areas of deficit.
      • Transfers by river are easier and cheaper but they raise environmental concerns
      • Proposed Severn – Thames transfer has highlighted several problems:
      • Severn river water has different mineral, nutrient, acidity and temperature characteristics of Thames water – what will be the impact of the transfer on insect fish and plant life be on the Thames
      • The cost of building dams, tunnels etc would be hundreds of millions of ££££
      • Land will be lost, habitats destroyed and migratory habitats disturbed
      • There is no gain to the Welsh people and their local economy.
    • Water has to be managed sustainably
      • The supply of water from the reservoir has to be sustainable
      • People should be able to get all the water they need today without stopping people in the future from having enough water
      • People can’t deplete the water supply or damage the environment too much or the supply won’t be the same in the future.
      • People should only take out as much water as is replaced by the rivers that supply it.
    • Where does Birmingham get its water from?
      • http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/mid/sites/history/pages/facts.shtml
      • Other case studies
      • Rutland Water – East Midlands (CGP pg 52)
      • Kielder Water Understanding Geography Bowen and Pallister pg 95
      • Vyrnwy – Liverpool AQA A pg 122
    • Plenary….
      • Which areas of the UK have a water deficit
      • Give one potential problem of water transfer
      • Name a reservoir in the UK
      • What is meant by a sustainable water supply?