L11 Uk Water Supply And DemandPresentation Transcript
UK water management Key idea: Rivers are managed to provide a water supply. There are a variety of issues resulting from this. Need blank UK map
To explain why there is an increasing demand for water in the UK.
Know and be able to map areas of deficit and areas of surplus.
To explain the need for transfer and give one example.
To know details of Kielder Water as a case study of a dam/reservoir
Be able to explain the resulting economic, social and environmental issues
To be able to explain why there is the need for sustainable supplies.
2000Q3 OLD AQA SPEC B
(i) Using only evidence from Fig 4, describe the distribution of the reservoirs shown (2)
(ii) Name a reservoir on Fig 4 that is in the Lake District (1)
(iii) In the 1990s there were water shortages in parts of the UK. Give three reasons that help to explain this (3)
b. In some parts of the UK groundwater supplies are more important than surface reservoirs. Explain why (5)
Water storage – key terms
Porous – rock with spaces between the particles which make up the rock
Permeable – rock which allows water to pass through the pore spaces
Pervious – rock which allows water to pass through via cracks
Impermeable – rock which does not allow water to pass through
Groundwater - water stored underground in areas of permeable rock
Water Stress – see page 121
Areas of deficit - see page 121
Areas of surplus - see page 121
¾ of UK’s water supply comes from mountain lakes, upland reservoirs and rivers
25% comes from underground stores
Ref pg 120 / 121 AQA A Demand for water is increasing for the following reasons:
UK’s population now exceeds 60 million
Water consumption per head is high
Increased domestic use – dishwashers, washing machines, garden hoses etc
Increased use in farming – with hotter and drier summers arable farmers are using irrigation for crops
Increased electricity demand and therefore generation – thermal and nuclear both use water for cooling
Rainfall map of t Rainfall map of the United Kingdom Fig 1. - Annual precipitation over Great Britain he United Kingdom Fig 1. - Annual precipitation over Great Britain Heaviest rainfall Areas with most cloud cover Lowest summer temperatures – less loss of water due to evaporation or transpiration Areas with low population density WATER SURPLUS WATER DEFICIT Demand > Supply Rainfall is lower Evaporation and transpiration is high 1/3 UK population lives in SE IN THE WEST IN THE EAST
It is clear that the demand for water is increasing. What can be done to increase supplies? Go to www.bbc.co.uk/news
Research how we and water companies can be more water efficient
how can supply/demand be managed?
Water companies are reducing leaks , each day, millions of litres are lost through leaking pipes
Build more reservoirs
As consumers we are being encouraged to be more efficient in our use of water
Demand can be satisfied by water transfers
Community tanks at end of streets with electric swipe cards so that only those people on the street have access to that supply
How are we encouraged to be more efficient in our use of water?
Transferring water by pipeline is costly
Some aqueducts were build many years ago.
How are we encouraged to be more efficient in our use of water? *rainwater can be collected *bathwater can be recycled to flush toilets *showers use less water than taking a bath – heads that limit water * Houses are being designed with better water efficiency * Devices are fitted to toilet cisterns to reduce water use *water meter – charge people for the exact volume of water that they use households with a water meter use less water - on average, 19 litres per person per day less *hose pipe bans * Education – TV ads
A traditional solution to unequal supply of water has been to transfer water from areas of surplus to areas of deficit.
Transfers by river are easier and cheaper but they raise environmental concerns
Proposed Severn – Thames transfer has highlighted several problems:
Severn river water has different mineral, nutrient, acidity and temperature characteristics of Thames water – what will be the impact of the transfer on insect fish and plant life be on the Thames
The cost of building dams, tunnels etc would be hundreds of millions of ££££
Land will be lost, habitats destroyed and migratory habitats disturbed
There is no gain to the Welsh people and their local economy.
Water has to be managed sustainably
The supply of water from the reservoir has to be sustainable
People should be able to get all the water they need today without stopping people in the future from having enough water
People can’t deplete the water supply or damage the environment too much or the supply won’t be the same in the future.
People should only take out as much water as is replaced by the rivers that supply it.