A case study of an earthquake in a richer part of the world Objectives: To learn the key issues of a case study of an earthquake from an More Economically Developed Country. To be able to explain the specific causes of the earthquake To understand the primary and secondary effects of the earthquake. To be able to describe the immediate and long term responses to the earthquake and start to look at how these differ from responses in an LEDC.
<ul><li>Stick a blank map of Japan in your book. </li></ul><ul><li>On it label the 4 main islands of Japan, Kobe and Tokyo. </li></ul><ul><li>Also draw on: </li></ul><ul><li>the main plate boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>the names of the plates </li></ul><ul><li>the direction they are moving in </li></ul><ul><li>the location of the epicentre </li></ul><ul><li>the magnitude of the earthquake. </li></ul><ul><li>the depth of the focus </li></ul>Where?
On Tuesday 17 th January 1995 a powerful earthquake hit Kobe, a large city on Honshu, the largest of Japans 4 main islands. You are going to watch some TV news reports recorded in the days immediately after the earthquake – you have been given a worksheet on which to record information about the causes, effects and responses. Make detailed notes as you will be using this information to write a piece of extended writing about why so many people died in this earthquake. The Kobe Earthquake 1995 (– sometimes called the Great Hanshin Earthquake)
On Tuesday, January 17th 1995 5.46 a.m. magnitude 7.2 on the Richter Scale Epicentre Awaji Island This region is the second most populated area after Tokyo, with a population of 10 million. The ground shook for only 20 seconds 6,434 people died Seriously injured over 40 000 Over 300,000 people became homeless
Cause Three plates meet near to the coast of Japan. Close to Kobe, the denser oceanic Philippines Plate is being pushed beneath the lighter continental Eurasian Plate . Earthquakes are very common along this boundary – the Nojima fault.
The great destruction which resulted from the 1995 Kobe Earthquake was due to the shallow depth of the focus which was only about 16 kms. below the surface and the fact that the epicentre occurred close to a densely populated area.
<ul><li>Gas mains ruptured </li></ul><ul><li>Water pipes fractured sections of elevated roads collapsed </li></ul><ul><li>Railway lines buckled - only 30% of Osaka – Kobe tracks were usable </li></ul><ul><li>2 million homes were without electricity </li></ul><ul><li>1 million had to cope without water for 10 days </li></ul><ul><li>Damage in excess of $220 billion was caused </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses e.g. Panasonic had to close temporarily </li></ul><ul><li>Fire engulfed parts of the city – especially wooden buildings located in the area west of the port. Damage to roads and water supply made it almost impossible to extinguish the fires </li></ul>
<ul><li>Responses </li></ul><ul><li>Friends and neighbours searched through rubble for survivors </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals struggled to cope with the injured </li></ul><ul><li>Motorola maintained free telephone connections </li></ul><ul><li>Railways were 80% operational within a month </li></ul><ul><li>Most of road network was operational by July ’95 </li></ul><ul><li>Sept ’96 Hanshin Express way was fully open again </li></ul><ul><li>1997 - port 80% operational </li></ul>
Lessons learnt…. <ul><li>Buildings and structures that had survived had been built to a 1981 code </li></ul><ul><li>Older buildings collapsed </li></ul><ul><li>New buildings were built further apart (to reduce domino effect) </li></ul><ul><li>High rise buildings had to have flexible steel frames </li></ul><ul><li>Those built of concrete frames are reinforced with steel </li></ul><ul><li>Rubber blocks put under bridges to absorb shocks </li></ul><ul><li>People practice earthquake drills </li></ul>
The Effects of the Earthquake: The immediate and direct effects of the earthquake are known as primary effects . They include the collapse of buildings, bridges and roads resulting from the shaking of the crust.
The earthquake caused massive damage to all the transport facilities. Several sections of motorway collapsed or toppled sideways. Railway lines were buckled and many stations damaged. A 130 kilometre section of the 'bullet train' rail network had to be closed. Primary effect
Many elevated highways were damaged Primary effect
Before After Most roads suffered some damage Primary effect
Some of the older office blocks built in the 1960's of steel and concrete collapsed in the middle so that a whole floor was crushed by the rooms above. Before After Primary effect
Primary effect Many of lower floors of office blocks crumpled by the weight above
` The Port was damaged due to liquefaction Cranes tilted or fell Primary effect
Modern buildings designed to be earthquake proof suffered little damage, although some were left standing at an angle when the ground beneath them liquefied Primary effect
Many of the older, wooden houses collapsed. Primary effect
However, modern earthquake proof buildings survived Primary effect
<ul><li>The secondary effects are those that are not caused directly by the earthquake wave: </li></ul><ul><li>Fires </li></ul><ul><li>congestion and chaos on the roads </li></ul><ul><li>the closure of businesses </li></ul><ul><li>problem of homelessness </li></ul><ul><li>Floods due to burst water mains </li></ul>
Fire, triggered by broken gas pipes caused a huge amount of damage, destroying at least 7,500 wooden homes . Secondary effect
Almost 300,000 people were made homeless by the earthquake and had to be given emergency shelter. The severe winter weather (-2°C.) made this a serious problem. Secondary effect
<ul><li>W ater, electricity, gas services were fully working in six months </li></ul><ul><li>The railways were back in service in 7 months </li></ul><ul><li>After three weeks most phones lines were working </li></ul><ul><li>A year after the earthquake, 80% of the port was working </li></ul><ul><li>By January 1999, 134,000 housing units had been built. </li></ul><ul><li>After fourteen months all collapsed bridges were repaired . </li></ul>Putting things right after the earthquake
Extended task: 1. Write a summary paragraph: Why did so many people die as a result of the 1995 Kobe Earthquake? (hint: preparation, Water pipes cut therefore no water for fires, emergency services slow to respond, wooden buildings, roads blocked therefore hindered emergency services) Homework: Obtain photos and images to insert into your class work
When? Why? Who? The following web links will help you get further information to complete the worksheet. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Hanshin_earthquake#Brief_on_arising_mechanisms_of_earthquakes_in_Japan http://www.geography-site.co.uk/pages/physical/earth/kobe.html http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/january/17/newsid_3375000/3375733.stm