Hazards Essay Introduction


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Hazards Essay Introduction

  1. 1. Essay Introduction – Hazards Mr R. Thomson “ To what extent does wealth affect the impacts of a hazard event for societies and individuals?”
  2. 2. Lesson Objectives <ul><li>To work on your ability to write good introductions to essays </li></ul><ul><li>To study a case study of an earthquake from an LEDC and an MEDC. </li></ul><ul><li>To know their specific causes –Primary and Secondary effects; Immediate and long term responses. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction 1 <ul><li>Read a newspaper or watch the TV news on a typical day, and it is likely that you will see reported the devastating effects of a hazard event. Yet whilst hazards occur in both MEDCs and LEDCs, the human impacts of hazard events are far from evenly distributed. Hazard events can be defined as “an event in the physical environment that is destructive to human life and property” (Downs, 1995). They are classified according to their causes, and the scale, duration and magnitude of the impacts they create (Alexander, 1993). Wealth can be defined as “having a comparative abundance of items of economic value” (Smith, 1776). But does wealth, both at an individual scale, and a societal scale, influence the impacts that hazards events have? This essay will explore whether the unequal distribution of wealth affects the scale and magnitude of the impacts of hazard events. If it does have an effect, the essay will also examine to what degree this is the case. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction 2 <ul><li>Hazards events are frequently reported in the news, be it on TV, in newspapers or other media formats. They include hurricanes, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and tsunamis and take place on every continent on the planet. They can be large and they can be small, and their impacts include loss of life, tremors felt in bed, or destruction of homes. These hazard events occur in many countries but their impacts in different areas and different countries vary. Hazard events are defined by Downs (1995) as “an event in the physical landscape that is destructive to human life and property”. Smith (1776) defines wealth as “having an abundance of items of economic value”. In this essay, I will look at whether a hazard event affects societies and individuals differently according to their level of wealth. And if this is the case, I will examine how much wealth determines the impact. </li></ul>
  5. 5. “ To what extent does wealth affect the impacts of a hazard event for societies and individuals?” <ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul><ul><li>MEDC – Kobe LEDC - Kashmir </li></ul>
  6. 6. Kobe, Japan – 1995 (7.2 on Richter Scale - 200 died) <ul><li>http://www.vibrationdata.com/earthquakes/kobe.htm </li></ul>Kashmir, Pakistan – 2005 (7.6 on Richter Scale – 79,000 died) http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/4321490.stm
  7. 7. Your Task <ul><li>Working in either a pair or a three: </li></ul><ul><li>Research both the Kobe earthquake and the Kashmir earthquake and provide two separate fact sheets </li></ul><ul><li>Create Venn diagrams to show how the short and long term impacts of these earthquakes are similar and different. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Homework <ul><li>Write an introduction to the following: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Volcanic eruptions are easier to predict but more difficult to respond to than earthquakes’ </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss this statement with reference to examples. </li></ul><ul><li>QA4 May 2008 </li></ul>