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Case study of a squatter settlement – kibera, nairobi

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  • 1. Case Study of a Squatter Settlement – Kibera Shanty Town in Nairobi, Kenya
  • 2. Syllabus
    • Specification content:
    • A case study of a squatter settlement redevelopment
    • References:
    • AQA A pg 208-9
    • AQA B pg 51
    • http://kibera.org.uk/Facts.html
  • 3. Lesson Objectives
    • All will understand the characteristics of Kibera and what life is like for the people living there.
    • Most will understand that although life is difficult, there are a number of ways in which Kibera is being improved.
    • Some will understand why Kibera can be seen as both a slum of hope and a slum of despair.
  • 4. Characteristics of Kibera
    • Watch the first clip and write a list of the problems you would find if you visited Kibera shanty town.
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bd-EBeUBWAg
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PcbqaxNfU64
  • 5. Site and situation of Kibera
    • AQA A pg 208
    • Stick your copy of the map into your ex. books
    • Describe the site of Kibera (mention marsh land which floods during rainy season and Ngong River)
    • Describe the situation of Kibera (mention distance and direction from city centre)
    • Where are all the shanty settlements located? Is there a pattern?
    • Where is the area of high income housing?
  • 6. Kibera’s People
    • Between 800,000 and 1 million people live in the shanty town in an area of only 255 hectares, meaning that population density is so high that people have only 1m³ of space each.
    • Over 100,000 children are believed to be orphans due to the high incidence of HIV/Aids.
  • 7. Characteristics of the squatter settlement and living conditions
    • Homes are made of mud, plastered over boards, wood or corrugated iron sheeting.
    • The paths between the houses are irregular, narrow and often have a ditch running down the middle that has sewage in it.
    • Rubbish litters the area as it is not collected. The area smells of the charcoal used to provide fuel and of human waste.
    • A standpipe may supply water for up to 40 families: private operators run hosepipes into the area and charge double the going rate for water.
  • 8.  
  • 9. Kibera's Problems (continued)
    • Crime is rife and vigilante groups offer protection – at a price. The police are reluctant to enter the slum.
    • However, there is a community spirit: homes are kept clean and the residents welcome visitors.
  • 10. What attempts have been made to improve Kibera?
    • Practical Action, a British Charity, has been responsible for low cost roofing tiles made from sand and clay and adding lime and natural fibre to soil to create blocks used for building that are cheaper than concrete. These allow self help schemes to progress.
    • The United Nations’ Human Settlement Programme (UN Habitat) has provided affordable electricity to some parts of the slum at 300 Kenyan shillings per shack.
    • There are two main water pipes – one provided by the council and the other by the World Bank – at a cost of 3 Kenyan Shillings per 20 litres.
    • Improving sanitation is more difficult and progress is slow. Charities such as the Red Cross are supporting the improvements. Gap year students are encouraged to go to Kibera to oversee the spending and to help coordinate efforts.
  • 11. Solutions (2)
    • On a larger scale…
    • A 15 year project that began in 2003 plans to re-house thousands of residents of Kibera. In the 1 st year of this project, run by the government and UN Habitat, 700 families were re-housed in new blocks of flats with running water, toilets, showers and electricity. Residents have been involved in plans and funding of 650 million Kenyan shillings had been set aside for the first year. Funding is now provided by charities and cheap World Bank loans .
  • 12.
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UJZhS252tdM
    • http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =oz2KikG6fyY
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J0Y7ORnwnKI
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=35vA6-M1Yog
    • Nairobi slum life: Into Kibera
    • Nairobi slum life: An evening in Kibera
    • Nairobi slum life: Kibera's children
    • Nairobi slum life: Escaping Kibera
  • 13. AQA A pg 209 Q3e
    • In your opinion, is Kibera a slum of hope or dispair? Justify your views.
  • 14.
    • parts of Kibera, one of the largest shanty towns in Africa, were demolished by the Kenyan government recently ( The Guardian , 20 April 2004 ). Bulldozers tore through the slums surrounding Nairobi in preparation for the construction of a new road. Plans for the area were not unknown but land is now in such short supply - population density reaches 80,000 per square kilometre in parts of Kibera - that shanty dwellings had been built there. While Kenya, like Brazil, has given legitimacy to some of its slums, the government must also press on with plans to develop national infrastructure and modernise. Unfortunately, large parts of Kibera are now a physical obstacle to this plan. This reminds us of the fundamental difference between poor areas of housing in MEDCs and in LEDC shanty towns – the latter are usually illegal . Housing is constructed on land that is not being used. However, rights of ownership do not pass to the slum dwellers. Their homes remain vulnerable should the true owner make claim to the land.
  • 15. Exam question
    • Write detailed answers to the questions you have been given. Make sure you refer your answer to a specific squatter settlement.

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