Agenda• Summary of Focus − Project Management Framework − Project Management Processes• Open Forum: Participant Questions• Study Group Questions• Wrap Up
Project Management Framework• Key concepts to understand: − Project vs. Operational Work − Triple Constraint • Scope, Time and Cost • Quality, Risk and Customer Satisfaction (Extended) − PM Areas of Expertise • PM Body of Knowledge • Application Area Knowledge, Standards and Regulations • Understanding the Project Environment • General Management knowledge and skills • Interpersonal skills − PMO: Project Management Office − Difference between project and program
Project Management Framework• Key concepts to understand: − Stakeholder Management • stakeholder – anyone whose interests may be positively or negatively impacted by the project (customer, project team, sponsor, PMO, etc.) • Identify all of them and determine all their requirements, determine their expectations, communicate and manage them. − Project Life Cycle common characteristics: • At the beginning risk is high, impact is low, stakeholder influence is high, cost and staffing levels are low. − Organizational Structures: • Functional, Matrix and Projectized • Differences, Advantages/disadvantages − PM Authority • Formal/Legitimate, Reward, Penalty/Coercive, Referent, Expert/Technical, Charismatic.
Project Management Processes• Key concepts to understand: − Five PM Processes and PDCA • Initiating = Start the Cycle − Defines and authorizes the project or a project phase − Project Charter and Preliminary Project Scope statement are the major outputs of this process • Planning = Plan − Define and refines objectives, and plans the course of action required to attain the objectives and scope that the project was undertaken to address − A Project Management Plan is the result of this process • Executing = Do − Integrates people and other resources to carry out the project management plan for the project • Monitoring & Controlling: Check and Act − Regularly measures and monitors progress to identify variances from the project management plan so that corrective action can be taken when necessary to meet project objectives − One of the worst scoring knowledge areas • Closing = End the Cycle − Formalizes acceptance of the product, service or result and brings the project or a project phase to an orderly end. − PMBOK • ITTO Matrix, Page Number: 70
Open Forum: Participant Questions If you have a question, raise your hand
Study Group QuestionsDelivery Format:•Each Question will be displayed and read•Survey Box will be used to solicit answer•Based on responses, we will discuss options•Answer will be revealed
1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a project? A. Constrained by limited resources B. Planned, executed and controlled C. Creates a unique product or service D. Can be ongoing and repetitive Answer: D Justification: A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result ... Temporary means that every project has a definite beginning and a definite end. Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 5
2. In a kick-off meeting for your project, you provided information to your team members about the different process groups which will be followed during project implementation. According to PMI, what are the project management process groups? A. Conceptualizing, Initiating, Executing, Monitoring and Controlling, Closing B. Initiating, Planning, Executing, Monitoring and Controlling, Closing C. Initiating, Verifying, Executing, Monitoring and Controlling, Closing D. Initiating, Planning, Executing, Controlling, Administrative Closure Answer: B Justification: The five process groups are: Initiating Process Group Planning Process Group Executing Process Group Monitoring and Controlling Process Group Closing Process Group Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 41
3. You are managing the release of a new drug in the market. Your role is that of a: A. Functional Manager, because you have good functional knowledge of the pharmaceutical industry B. Project Manager, because you are creating a unique product within specific time schedules C. Operations Manager, because you have to do several repetitive tasks D. Program Manager, because you have to manage several sub-projects to effectively do your job Answer: B Justification: A project creates unique deliverables, which are products, services or results. Projects can create:... A capability to perform a service, such as business functions supporting production or distribution Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 5
4. During a team meeting, a team member asks about the measurements that will be used on the project to judge performance. The team member feels that some of the measures related to activities assigned him are not valid measurements. The project is BEST considered in what part of the project management process? A. Closing B. Monitoring and Controlling C. Executing D. Initiating Answer: C Justification: This situation does not describe an actual measurement (a monitoring and controlling activity) but rather a meeting occurring during project executing talking about control issues Reference: Rita Mulcahy, Page Number: 84
5. As a project manager in the automobile industry, you have to be aware of government regulations about the width of vehicles, type of fuel to be used, safety requirements etc. You should also have knowledge of the guidelines, best practices and standards which are used in the industry. In this context, which statement related to Standards and Regulations is not correct?A. A Standard is a document established by consensus and approved by a recognized bodyB. Regulations are mandatory but Standards are not mandatoryC. Standards after widespread adoption may become de facto regulationsD. The influence of standards and regulations on a project is always known Answer: D Justification: The project manager should try to find out the different standards and regulations which may impact the project. However, the influence of standards and regulations on a project is not always known. Reference: pmstudy notes as mentioned above. Also, please refer to PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 13
6. Your IT Company is responsible for making software virus programs. You are responsible for managing both the individual product releases and the co-ordination of multiple releases over time. Your role is that of a: A. Program Manager B. Project Manager C. Functional Manager D. Operations Manager Answer: A Justification: A program is a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually. Programs may include elements of related work outside the scope of discrete projects in the program. Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 16
7. You have reached the end of the design phase of your project. You decide to call a "phase end review" for obtaining authorization to close the design phase and initiate the next phase (i.e. execution phase) of your project. Your manager disagrees with your suggestion. He wants a "kill point" to formally end the design phase of the project. In this context, you should: A. Disagree with your manager because you know that phase end reviews should be used at the end of each phase of the project B. Agree with your manager C. Escalate this issue to the project sponsor D. Take advice from a senior project manager about what should actually be done at the end of each phase of the project Answer: B Justification: A phase end review can be held with the explicit goals of obtaining authorization to close the current phase and to initiate the subsequent one... Phase end reviews are also called phase exits, phase gates, or kill points. Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 23 pmstudy notes: Essentially both you and your manager are talking about the same thing (i.e. "phase end reviews" are also referred to as "kill points")
8. A project manager has very little project experience, but he has been assigned as the project manager of a new project. Because he will be working in a matrix organization to complete his project, he can expect communications to be: A. Simple B. Open and accurate C. Complex D. Hard to automate Answer: C Justification: Because a project done in a matrix organization involves people from across the organization, communications are more complex Reference: Rita Mulcahy, Pages, 27 – 30, 35
9. You are working in the Project Office of your organization. What is your job responsibility? A. Managing the operational activities in the company. B. Managing Human resource and Risk Management issues for projects C. Providing support functions to Project Managers in the form of training, software, standardized policies etc. D. Providing Subject Matter Expertise in the Functional areas of the project Answer: C Justification: A Project Management Office (PMO) is an organizational unit to centralize and coordinate the management of projects under its domain. A PMO can also be referred to as ... "project office." PMOs can operate in a continuum from providing project management support functions in the form of training, software, standardized policies and procedures, to actual direct management and responsibility for achieving the project objectives. Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 17
10. In which organizational structure does a project manager have maximum influence? A. Functional Organization B. Weak Matrix C. Strong Matrix D. Projectized Organization Answer: D Justification: Figure 2-6 (Organizational Structure Influences on Projects). It shows that project managers have maximum influence in a projectized organization. Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 28
11. Which of the following is the most resistant to change? A. Business Requirements B. Technology C. People D. Environment Answer: C Justification: People exhibit a greater resistance to change than to other factors Reference: Project Management - A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling and Controlling ; pmstudy.com notes as mentioned above
12. Matrix organizations exhibit features of both projectized and functional organizations. In a weak matrix organization, the role of a project manager is that of a: A. coordinator and expediter B. manager with considerable authority C. support person D. functional manager Answer: A Justification: Weak matrix organizations maintain many of the features of a functional organization and the project manager role is more that of a coordinator or expediter than that of a manager. Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 30
13. Your manager has decided that all orders will be treated as “projects” and that project managers will be used to update orders daily, resolving issues and ensuring that the customer formally accepts the product within 30 days of completion. Revenue from the individual orders can vary from U.S. $100 to U.S. $150,000. The project manager will not be required to perform planning or provide documentation other than daily status. How would you define this situation? A. Because each individual order is a ‘temporary endeavor,’ each order is a project. B. This is program management since there are multiple projects involved. C. This is a recurring process. D. Orders incurring revenue over $100,000 would be considered projects and would involve project management. Answer: C Justification: Because orders are numerous and short duration, this situation is a process, not a project Reference: Rita Mulcahy, Pages: 21 – 22; 36
14. You have recently joined as a project manager in a company where they follow a projectized organizational structure. All your team members work in the same office, where you have a lot of independence and authority. All the following are advantages of a projectized organizational structure EXCEPT: A. Loyalty of the project team to the project B. Home for the team-members after the project is completed C. More effective communication among the team members D. Efficient project organization Answer: B Justification: In a projectized organization, most of the organizational resources are involved in the project work. One big problem is that the project team members do not belong to a specific functional group and hence do not have any "home" once the project is over. Reference: pmstudy.com notes
15. Your project stakeholder has asked you to create a financial plan for your project. Preparing a financial plan will require: A. Program management skills B. Industry specific skills C. Financial subject matter expertise D. Both project management and industry specific skills Answer: D Justification: Preparing a financial plan requires both project management and Industry specific skills. Reference: pmstudy.com notes as mentioned above
16. Collectively, project phases are also referred to as "Project Life Cycle". All the following statements about a project life cycle are correct EXCEPT: A. All project life cycles are usually identical B. The level of risk is highest at the start of the project, and decreases as the project progresses. C. The ability of the stakeholders to influence the final characteristics is highest at the start, and gets progressively lower as the project continues. D. Cost and staffing requirements usually peak during the intermediate phases Answer: A Justification: Although many project life cycles have similar phase names with similar deliverables, few project life cycles are identical. Some can have four or five phases, but others may have nine or more. Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 22
17. In your organization, all big technical projects follow six life-cycles ( i.e. Initiate, Analyze, Design, Implement, Test and Closeout). In this context, a project life cycleA. defines the product life cycle.B. defines the project phases.C. consists of several product life cycles.D. has deliverables that must be completed before work starts on the next phase. Answer: B Justification: Project managers or the organization can divide projects into phases to provide better management control with appropriate links to the ongoing operations of the performing organization. Collectively, these phases are known as the project life cycle. Many organizations identify a specific set of life cycles for use on all of their projects Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 19
18. A project manager has to manage different stakeholder expectations. Project sponsor and customer are two very important stakeholders in any project. In this context, which statement is incorrect?A. Along with the customer, the sponsor threshold for risks should be taken into account.B. Along with the customer, the sponsor may provide key events, milestones, and deliverable due dates.C. Along with the customer, the sponsor formally accepts the product of the project.D. Along with the customer, the sponsor provides financial resources for the project. Answer: D Justification: All the statements 1, 2 and 3 are correct Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 26 Statement 4 is incorrect - the sponsor provides the financial resources (in cash or kind) for the project. The customer on the other hand uses the project`s product and does not provide financial resources for the project. Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 16
19. As a project manager for a construction company, you are responsible for Scope Definition, Activity Definition, Schedule Development and Cost Budgeting. These responsibilities are performed as a part of : A. Closing B. Concept C. Planning D. Controlling Answer: C Justification: Table 3-45 Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 70
20. Almost all projects are planned and implemented in a social, economic or environmental context, and have intended and unintended positive or negative impacts. In this context, the project team should do all of the following EXCEPT: A. Understand how the project affects people and people affect the project. This may require understanding the economic, demographic and educational characteristics of people whom the project affects or who may have interests in the project. B. Understand the political climate that could affect the project. C. Always be aware of the physical geography and local ecology where the project is being executed. D. If you have an international team, consider factors like time-zone differences, national and regional holidays etc. Answer: C Justification: If the project will affect the physical surroundings, some team members should be knowledgeable about the local ecology and physical geography that could affect the project or be affected by the project. Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 14 pmstudy notes: Look out for words like "Always", "All the time", "Never" etc. which suggest that there cannot be any exceptions - try to find out whether exceptions are applicable to the particular situation. In this context, please note that several projects do not impact physical surroundings (e.g. several IT projects may not have any impact on physical surroundings)
21. As a project manager, you realize that handling Project Stakeholder expectations is an important priority. Which statement regarding project stakeholders is not correct? A. Negative stakeholders must be ignored if the project has to be brought to a successful completion. B. Stakeholders have varying levels of responsibility and authority when participating on a project and these can change over the project`s life cycle. C. Some key stakeholders include project manager, performing organization, project team members, customer and sponsor. D. Stakeholder expectations may be difficult to manage because stakeholders often have conflicting objectives. Answer: A Justification: Positive stakeholders are those who would normally benefit from a successful outcome from the project, while negative stakeholders are those who see negative outcomes from the project`s success... Negative stakeholders are often overlooked by the project team at the risk of failing to bring the projects to a successful end. Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 25 pmstudy.com comments: Negative stakeholders and their impact on the project should always be taken into consideration.
22. In your company, project managers share responsibility with the functional manager for assigning priorities and for directing the work of persons assigned to the project. Which of the following is not the responsibility of project managers in your company? A. Performing resource planning B. Managing cost and budget C. Carrying out performance appraisal of project team D. Completing task definitions Answer: C Justification: Matrix Organization: Any organizational structure in which the project manager shares responsibility with the functional managers for assigning priorities and for directing the work of persons assigned to the project. Reference: PMBOK 3rd Edition Page Number 364 So, effectively, your company follows a matrix organizational structure. In a matrix organization, Personnel Performance Management is not the responsibility of the project manager; this task is done by the Functional Managers. Reference: Project Management - A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling and Controlling
Wrap UpConference Number: 547-941-6414 or 866-547-8978Passcode: Leader – 844306338, Participant – 3706708313 Professional Responsibility & September 2:00pm Presenter: https:// Integration Management 11 EST (PMBOK Chapters 4 & PMI www.rooms.hp.com/attend/default.aspx?key Code of Conduct) =EHMRS664ZY Participant: https:// www.rooms.hp.com/attend/default.aspx?key =EPS9H9CYRR
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