P planning

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P planning

  1. 1. Project Planning Project PlanningPlanning in General : SWOT analysis S: Strengths W: Weaknesses O: Opportunities T: ThreatsObjectives should be: SMART S: Specific M: Measurable A: Achievable R: Realistic T: Timely 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 2 1
  2. 2. Project Planning Somebody Anybody TASK Everybody Nobody 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 3 Project PlanningCharacteristics of a good plan Based on clearly definite and practical objectives Simple Flexible Easy to control Provide proper standards Exploit existing resources, etc. 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 4 2
  3. 3. Project PlanningPlanning Inputs and Outputs INPUTS OUTPUTS Contract information Activities Drawings Relationships among activities Specifications Method statement Available resources Responsibility PLANNING Reporting levels Bills of quantities Project network diagram Site reports Activities duration Organizational data Activities cost Construction methods 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 5 Project PlanningPlanning Major steps Determination of Project Activities (WHAT) Establishment of Logic; Relationships and overlap (WHEN) Presentation (Table, Network, Chart, …) Estimate Activities’ Duration and Cost (HOW) 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 6 3
  4. 4. Project PlanningWork Breakdown Structure (WBS) The WBS is a hierarchical structure which is designed to logically sub-divide all the work-elements of the project into smaller elements. House Civil Plumping Electrical Foundations Walls/ Pipin H/C Wiring Finishing Roof g Water24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 7 Project PlanningWork Breakdown Structure (Why) Prepare project plan Identifying Activities Scheduling Identifying cost & schedule at various levels of details Time & cost control Identifying individual or departmental responsibilities24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 8 4
  5. 5. Project PlanningWBS & Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS) WBS (Work elements) Project Area 1 Area 2 Area 3 …… Beams Columns Slabs …… Electrical Formwork Reinforcement Concreting …… Subcontr superinte actor B ndent Concrete foreman OBS (Responsibility Project General Civil Control account Formwork & reporting) manager contractor superinte ndent foreman Rebar Subcontr foreman actor A Mechanic al superinte ndent 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 9 Project Planning WBS Coding Each work package or activity in a WBS is given a unique code that is used in project planning and control Identifying Activities 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 10 5
  6. 6. Project PlanningProject Activities Project is divided into segments of work called activities Activity: Time-consuming single work element Guidelines for project breakdown: by: area of responsibility, structural element, category of work, etc. Level of details depends on: planning stage, size of the project, complexity of the work, etc. 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 11 Project PlanningProject ActivitiesTypes of construction activities: Production: taken directly from drawings and/or specifications Management (Approvals, site establishment, …etc). Procurement (equipment delivery, material procurement) 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 12 6
  7. 7. Project PlanningProject Activities Example (Double Span Bridge): 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 13 Project PlanningActivities Relationships The order in which project activities are to be performed Which activity(ies) must be completed before an activity can start Which activity(ies) can not start until activity completion Which activity(ies) have no logical relations Logic constraints: Physical, and Resources 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 14 7
  8. 8. Code Description Predecessors 10 Set-up site --- 14 Procure RFT --- 16 Procure P.C. Beams --- 20 Excavate left abutment 10 30 Excavate right abutment 10 40 Excavate central pier 10 50 Foundation left abutment 14, 20 60 Foundation right abutment 14, 30 70 Foundation central pier 14, 40 80 Construct left abutment 50 90 Construct right abutment 60 100 Construct central pier 70 110 Erect left P.C. Beams 16, 80, 100 120 Erect right P.C. Beams 16, 90, 100 140 Fill left embankment 80 150 Fill right embankment 90 155 Construct deck slab 110, 120 160 Left road base 140 170 Right road base 150 180 Road surface 155, 160, 170 190 Bridge railing 155 200 Clear site 180, 190 Project PlanningType of Activities Relationships Four Types: Finish to Start (FS) Finish to Finish (FF) Start to Start (SS) Start to Finish (SF) FS FF SS SF 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 16 8
  9. 9. Project PlanningOverlapshow much a particular activity must be completedbefore a succeeding activity may start Used for activities not using the same type of resources With a value less than the duration of the preceding activity +ve overlap (-ve lag) -ve overlap (+ve lag)24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 17 Project PlanningOverlapsExample Consider the construction of the following sequential activities of a bridge consists of 19 bays Pile manufacturing with duration 2.5 wks/pier Pile driving with duration 1.5 wks/pier Pile cap with duration 2.0 wks/pier Pier shaft with duration 2.5 wks/pier Determine the appropriate overlap between activities24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 18 9
  10. 10. Project PlanningRelationships Considering Resource Constraints Predecessors Predecessors Activity description (unconstrained (constrained resources) resources) A1 Excavate unit 1 - - B1 Concreting unit 1 A1 A1 C1 Brickwork unit 1 B1 B1 A2 Excavate unit 2 - A1 B2 Concreting unit 2 A2 B1, A2 C2 Brickwork unit 2 B2 C1, B2 A3 Excavate unit 3 - A2 B3 Concreting unit 3 A3 B2, A3 C3 Brickwork unit 3 B3 C2, B3 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 19 Project Planning Project networks: AOA Two Types: Activity-On-Arrow; AOA (Arrow Networks). Activity-On-Node; AON (Precedence Networks): AOA Activity represented as arrows with start and finish nodes called Events Activity A i j j>i 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 20 10
  11. 11. Project PlanningProject networks: AOA A B 5 10 15 B depends on A A C 5 10 15 C depends on A and B B 5 15 B B depends on A 5 A 10 C 15 C depends on A 5 15 A C B depends on A and B D depends on A and B B 10 D 5 15 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 21 Project PlanningProject networks: AOA Dummy activity Activity with zero duration and no resources to adjust the network A C A C 5 15 20 5 20 25 B D Dummy 25 B D 10 C depends on A and B 10 15 30 D depends on B only A A 5 15 5 15 B Dummy B 10 Incorrect representation Correct representation 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 22 11
  12. 12. Project PlanningProject networks: AON AOA Activity represented as nodes Activity number 10 A Activity name 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 23 Project PlanningProject networks: AON 10 20 B depends on A A B 10 30 40 C depends on A and B A C D D depends on C 20 B 30 C 10 20 B depends on A A B C depends on B D depends on B 40 D 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 24 12
  13. 13. Project PlanningProject networks: Example Activity Predecessors A - B - C A, B D C E C F D G D, E24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 25 Project PlanningProject networks: Example (AOA)24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 26 13
  14. 14. Project PlanningProject networks: Example (AON)Calculate the Sequence step Activity Predecessors Sequence step (SS) Start - SS(Start)=1 A Start 2=SS(Start)+1 B Start 2=SS(Start)+1 C A, B 3=Highest of [SS(B), SS(A)] D C 4=SS(C)+1 E C 4=SS(C)+1 F D 5=SS(D)+1 G D, E 5=Highest of [SS(D), SS(E)] Finish F, G 6= Highest of [SS(F), SS(G)]24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 27 Project PlanningProject networks: Example (AON)Sequence step 1 2 3 4 5 624/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 28 14
  15. 15. Project PlanningActivity Duration & Direct Cost Planning time unit (hours, days, weeks, months) Establish method statement (method of construction) Specify number of resources, and hence output Duration = Quantity of work / No. of Res. x Res. Output 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 29 Project PlanningActivity Duration & Direct CostProductivity can be estimated: From published data (‫)اﻟﻤﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ اﻟﻬﻨﺪﺳﻴﺔ‬ Previous records of a company Productivity data Daily production Man-hours/ unit Units/day Mhrs/unit How many units can be done How long it takes form one in one time unit labor to finish one unit Applies to a given crew Applies to any crew formation 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 30 15
  16. 16. Project PlanningActivity Duration & Direct Cost Example What is the duration to install 6000 square feet of walls shuttering if: Crew of 2 carpenters is used, output of 200 square feet/day Productivity is measured as 0.008 man-hour/square feet. Number of carpenters =3, and number of working hours/day = 8 hours a. Duration = 6000 / 200 = 3 days b. Total man-hours needed = 6000 x 0.008 = 48 man-hours (if one man used) Duration = 48 / 8 = 6 days (if one man used) Duration using 3 men = 6 / 3 = 2 days 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 31 Project PlanningActivity Duration & Direct CostExample (balanced mix of resources)A wall involves 660 m3 concrete, 50 tone of steel, and 790 m2 of formwork. - A 6 man concrete crew can place 16 m3 of concrete/day. - A steel-fixer and assistant can fix 0.5 ton of reinforcement/day. - A carpenter and assistant can fix and remove 16 m2 of shuttering/day - using one steel-fixer: duration = 50 / 0.5 = 100 days - using one carpenter: duration = 790 / 16 = 49.4 days - using one concreting crew: duration = 660 / 16 = 41.25 days. 2 steel-fixer crews, one carpenter crew, and cone concreting crew. duration = 50 / 0.5 x 2 = 50 days 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 32 16
  17. 17. Project PlanningActivity Duration & Direct CostActivity direct cost: Duration, resources, and cost are interrelated elements Direct cost comprises: labor, material, equipment, and/or subcontractors Unit cost = total cost / quantity 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 33 17

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