08 pmp communication management

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08 pmp communication management

  1. 1. Based on the 4th Edition of PMBOKPROJECT COMMUNICATIONMANAGEMENTWaleed El-Naggar, MBA, PMP
  2. 2. Communication is Important! Why? It consumes 90% of a Project Manager’s time. It weighs 14% in the PMP Exam ! 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 2
  3. 3. Communication… is What? Encoding DecodingSender --------- Message ------- Receiver 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 3
  4. 4. Project Communication Management Identify Stakeholders Plan Communications Distribute Information Manage Stakeholder Expectation Report Performance 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 4
  5. 5. 10.1 Identify Stakeholders Identify all people or organizations impacted by the project: e.g., Customers, Sponsors, Team Members, Suppliers (Internal & External), and Labor unions 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 5
  6. 6. Identify Stakeholders: Inputs Project Charter (provides information about internal & external involved parties Procurement Documents Enterprise Environmental Factors (e.g., organizational culture, industry standards, … etc) Organizational Process Assets (stakeholders register templates, lessons learned, old project documents, … etc) 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 6
  7. 7. Identify Stakeholders: Tools & Techniques Stakeholder Analysis: gathering & analyzing information to determine stakeholder in 3 steps:  Identify all potential stakeholders & relevant information (roles, departments, interests, knowledge levels, expectations, and influence levels).  Identify potential impact or support each stakeholder could generate (power-interest)  Assess how key stakeholders are likely to react or respond to various situations. 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 7
  8. 8. Power-Interest Grid 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 8
  9. 9. Identify Stakeholders: T & T (2) Expert Judgment: groups or individuals specialized in certain areas such:  Senior management  Subject matter experts  Industry groups and consultants  Professional and technical associations  Project managers with experience in similar project and  Identified stakeholders. 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 9
  10. 10. Identify Stakeholders: Outputs Stakeholder Register: it contains  Identification Information: name, organizational position, location, role in project, … etc.  Assessment Information: major requirements, expectation, potential influence in project … etc.  Stakeholder Classification: Internal/External, supporter, neutral, resistor, … etc. 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 10
  11. 11. Identify Stakeholders: Outputs (2) Stakeholder Management Strategy: define an approach to increase the support and minimize negative impacts of stakeholder throughout the whole project life cycle. It should define:  Key stakeholder (can significantly impact the project).  Level of participation in the project  Stakeholder groups and their management. 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 11
  12. 12. Sample Stakeholder Mgmt Plan 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 12
  13. 13. QuizHow should the project manager manage thestakeholders with high power in high interest in theproject?A. Keep them satisfiedB. Manager CloselyC. Treat them equally to other stakeholdersD. Give their request a high priority Answer: B 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 13
  14. 14. 10.2 Plan Project Communication  Determining Stakeholder s’ information needs and defining communication approach:  Who needs What  When he/she needs it  Who will deliver  How will it be delivered (report, email, verbal, … etc)  Should be planned early and revised through the whole project life.  Improper communication planning will lead to significant problems 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 14
  15. 15. Plan Communications: Inputs1. Stakeholder Register:2. Stakeholder Management Strategy3. Enterprise Environmental Factors: Company’s culture, infrastructure, market conditions etc.4. Organizational Process Assets: Historical records- lessons learned – templates- guidelines & Procedures. 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 15
  16. 16. Plan Communications: T & T (1)1. Communication Requirements Analysis: Determine information needs of the project stakeholder. (Number of communications channels) N(N-1)/ 2 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 16
  17. 17. Plan Communications: T & T (2)2. Communication Technology: affected by  The urgency of the need for the information  The availability of technology  Expected Project staffing (experience, training, … etc)  Duration of the project (Will technology change?)  The project environment 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 17
  18. 18. Plan Communications: T & T (3)3. Communication Models. 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 18
  19. 19. Plan Communications: T & T (4)4. Communication Methods:  Interactive (meetings, phone calls, video conferences, … etc)  Push Communications (letters, memos, reports, emails, faxes, … etc)  Pull communications (Intranet, knowledge repositories, … etc) 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 19
  20. 20. Plan Communications: Outputs Communications Management Plan:  Communications item: information for distribution  Purpose: The reason of the distribution  Start/end dates.  Medium and formality  Responsibility: who will distribute the information  Escalation Procedures  Glossary of Terminology Project Documents Updates (Schedule, stakeholder Register, stakeholder strategy, … etc) 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 20
  21. 21. Q: One Purpose of the CommunicationManagement plan is to offer:A. Methods about how to gather & store Information.B. Measure the level of experience of each team member.C. Organize the project and the relationships of stakeholder responsibilities.D. Provide methods of releasing team members after they are no longer needed. Answer: A 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 21
  22. 22. Q: The team has 5 team members as well as theproject manager. How many communicationchannels?A. 10.B. 15.C. 6D. 30 Answer: B 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 22
  23. 23. 10.3 Distribute Information The process of making needed information available to project stakeholders as planned. Effective information distribution incudes several techniques such as:  Sender-receiver models (feedback, barriers, … etc)  Choice of media  Writing style  Meeting management techniques  Presentation techniques 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 23
  24. 24. Distribute Information : Inputs1. Communication Management Plan.2. Performance reports (output of 10.5)3. Organizational Process Assets  Guidelines  Templates  Historical Information 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 24
  25. 25. Distribute Information: Tools &Techniques1. Communication Methods:2. Information Distribution Tools: • Hard copies • Electronic communication 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 25
  26. 26. Types of Communication1. Non verbal Communication: 55% of conveying the message, composed of behavior & Physical Mannerisms.2. Verbal Communication  Formal (Presentations- Speeches)  Informal (Meetings Conversations)Types of Verbal Communication:  Para-lingual: Pitch & Tone of Voice  Active Listening  Effective Listening: Watching physical gestures of the speaker. 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 26
  27. 27. 3. Written Formal : In project plan, charter, long distances & complex problems. Informal : Memos, emails, notes.Communication skills allow information to flow:  Internally  Externally  Vertically (up and down hierarchies)  Horizontally (along peers) 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 27
  28. 28. Take care if the question is asking youwhat is the total number of channels orwhat is the additional number of channels. 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 28
  29. 29. Communication Barriers (1) Noise Distance Hostility Language Culture Evaluative tendency Improper Decoding 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 29
  30. 30. Communication Barriers (1) Personality and interest Position and status Lack of responsive feedback Withholding information Mixed messages Stereotyping 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 30
  31. 31. Distribute Information: Outputs1. Updated Process Assets Updates;  Stakeholder Notifications  Project Reports  Project Records: correspondences – memos – project notebooks.  Project Presentations: where the presenter must determine;  Feedback from stakeholders  Lessons Learned Documentation 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 31
  32. 32. WHATEVER YOUR MESSAGE is; keep it clear and simple 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 32
  33. 33. Q: The most common negotiation problem thatoccurs during negotiation is:A. Each side might misinterpret what the other side has saidB. Each side may give up on the other sideC. One side may try to confuse the other sideD. One side may be too busy thinking about what to say next to hear what is being said Answer A 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 33
  34. 34. 10.4 Manage Stakeholders ExpectationsWorking with stakeholders to meet their needsand addressing issues as they occur.  Actively manage expectations of stakeholders to increase likelihood of project acceptance.  Addressing concerns and issues.  Clarifying and resolving issues 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 34
  35. 35. Manage Stakeholders Expectations:Inputs1. Stakeholder Register2. Stakeholder Management Strategy3. Project Management Plan4. Issue Log5. Change Log6. Organizations Process Assets 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 35
  36. 36. Manage Stakeholders Expectations:Tools and Techniques1. Communication Methods2. Interpersonal Skills  Building trust  Resolving conflicts  Active Listening  Overcoming resistance to change3. Management Skills  Presentation Skills  Negotiation  Writing Skills  Public Speaking 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 36
  37. 37. Manage Stakeholders Expectations:Outputs1. Organizational Process Assets Updates2. Change Requests3. Project Management Plan Updates4. Project Document Updates  Stakeholder management strategy  Stakeholder Register  Issue Log 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 37
  38. 38. 10.5 PERFORMANCE REPORTING Provides information regarding all PMP Management Areas. Emphasizes Forecasting. 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 38
  39. 39. PERFORMANCE REPORTING: Inputs 1. Project Management Plan 2. Work Performance Information:  Deliverable status  Schedule Progress (CPI, SPI, … etc)  Cost incurred 3. Work Performance Measurements: to calculate actual work performance versus plan. 4. Budget Forecast 5. Organizational Process Assets 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 39
  40. 40. PERFORMANCE REPORTING: T & T1. Variance Analysis2. Forecasting Methods  Time series methods  Causal/econometric methods  Judgmental methods  Other methods3. Communication Methods4. Reporting Systems 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 40
  41. 41. PERFORMANCE REPORTING: Outputs1. Performance reports, e.g. Bar charts/Gantt chart, S- Curves & resource Histograms.2. Organizational Process Assets Updates3. Change Requests 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 41
  42. 42. Q: Of the Various tools & Techniques on PerformanceReporting, which one integrates scope, cost &schedule information as key elements?A. Real options AnalysisB. Variance AnalysisC. Earned Value AnalysisD. Schedule/ Cost Analysis Answer C 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 42
  43. 43. Q: At the end of each project, the project team shouldprepare a lessons learned summary that focuses on allof the following except:A. Sharing Best Practices with other teams in the organizationB. Warning others of potential problemsC. Suggesting methods to mitigate risks effectively to ensure successD. Sharing only the positive aspects of the project for future replication elsewhere in the organization Answer D 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 43
  44. 44. Q: Extensive use of _______ communication ismost likely to aid in solving complex problemsA. VerbalB. WrittenC. FormalD. Nonverbal Answer B 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 44
  45. 45. Q: The WBS can be an effective aid forcommunication in which situation?A. Internal within the projectB. Internal within the organizationC. External with the customerD. Internal and external to the project Answer D 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 45
  46. 46. Q: The Most Likely results of Communication blockersis that:A. The project is delayedB. Trust level is enhancedC. Conflict occursD. Senior management is displeased Answer C 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 46
  47. 47. Q: Communications are often enhanced when thesender _____ the receiverA. Speaks up toB. Uses more physical movements when talking toC. Talks slowly toD. Shows Concern for the perspective of Answer A 5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 47
  48. 48. Thank you waleed_k@aucegypt.edu5/30/2009 Prepared by: Waleed El-Naggar 48

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