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Tsl overview of frp composite technologies in yacht building

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The present will provide you an overview of FRP Composite applied for yacht production with 5 below subjects. …

The present will provide you an overview of FRP Composite applied for yacht production with 5 below subjects.

1. What is composite material, fiber composite and FRP composite?

2. Definitions in Composite Technology (ABS Rules, 2000)

3. The Methods of FRP Composite Fabrication of Yacht Builders

4. Composite Technology in The Current Yacht Building Practice (ISSC, 2009)

5. Survey of Moulding (ClassNK, 2010)

Nguyễn Anh Tuấn
Yacht Designer
TUANSHIPLAND.com

Published in: Education, Business, Technology

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  • 1. Overview of FRP Composite Technologies in Yacht Building
    NguyễnAnhTuấn
    Yacht Designer
    TUANSHIPLAND.com
    Image source: http://www.boats.com/blog/2011/04/clear-gelcoat-see-beneath-the-surface/
  • 2. Contents
    What is composite material, fiber composite and FRP composite?
    Definitions in Composite Technology (ABS Rules, 2000)
    The Methods of FRP Composite Fabrication of Yacht Builders
    Composite Technology in The Current Yacht Building Practice (ISSC, 2009)
    Survey of Moulding (ClassNK, 2010)
  • 3. 1. What is composite material,
    fiber composite
    and FRP composite?
  • 4. Most composite is a multiphase material, most of composite consist of two components that are: (NguyễnVănDán, 2003)
    Reinforcement (Cốt) is the discontinuous phase (phagiánđoạn) to make strength(độbền) and elastic modulus (môđunđànhồi) of composite.
    Matrix (Nền) or resin is the continuous phase to transmit the loads, cover the reinforcement and make bond strength (độbềnliênkết) of composite.
    Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP, chấtdẻocốtsợi*) is a popular material has been applied widely to build hull boat and deck in yacht industry (Larsson and Eliasson, 2000).
    Note:
    * TCVN 6285-2003 (VR, 2003)
    According to Nghi Tr. C. (2005), FRP for USA and Glass-reinforced Plastic (GRP) for UK
    According to 2.33 inGuide for Building and Classing of Motor Pleasure Yachts (ABS, 2000), FRP contains two basic components:
    A glass-filament (Sợithủytinh) or other material fiber, reinforcement filament
    A plastic or resin (nhựa)
    FRP Yacht in Thailand Shipyard
    Source: http://www.amdesign.co.th/In_construction.html
    Patrol Boat of LươngGiang Company in Vietnam
    Source: http://luonggiang.com/home.asp?ID=280&langid=1
  • 5. Fiber Composite (R&G, 2009)
  • 6. 2. Definitions
    in Composite Technology
    Guide for Building and Classing Motor Pleasure Yachts (ABS, 2000)
  • 7. Reinforcement
    Guide for Building and Classing Motor Pleasure Yachts (ABS, 2000)
    * Translated into Vietnamese by NghịTr.C. (2005)
  • 8. Image source from Composite Meterials – Design and Application(Gray, Hoa and Tsai, 2003)
  • 9. Kinds of Glass Reinforcement (Larsson and Eliasson, 2000)
  • 10. Resin
    Guide for Building and Classing Motor Pleasure Yachts (ABS, 2000)
    * Translation obeys TCVN 6285-2003 (VR, 2003)
    Epoxy Filler “Watertite”
    Image Source: http://www.yachtpaint.com/usa/diy/products/fillers/search.aspx
  • 11. * Translation obeys TCVN 6285-2003 (VR, 2003)
    Image Source: http://www.jamestowndistributors.com/1/1/2251-epoxy-resin-west-system-105-epoxy-resin.html
  • 12. Laminate
    Guide for Building and Classing Motor Pleasure Yachts (ABS, 2000)
    Image Source: Handbook of R&G (2009)
  • 13. * Translation obeys TCVN 6285-2003 (VR, 2003)
  • 14. Sandwich Composite Using Honeycomb Core
    Source: http://www.fibre-reinforced-plastic.com/2010/12/sandwich-composite-and-core-material.html
    Abalsa core sandwich panel with skin connecting 3-dimensional fibers
    Source: http://www.ebertcomposites.com/news2006.html
    Marine plywood panel
    Source: http://www.nauticexpo.com/prod/bellotti-spa/sandwich-panels-plywood-balsa-30295-209428.html
  • 15. Table 5.1 Tests for Physical Properties of FRP Laminates
    in Guide for Building and Classing Motor Pleasure Yachts (ABS, 2000)
  • 16. Properties of Commonly Used Reinforcements (Gray, Hoa and Tsai 2003)
    Note:
    Kevlar 49 làtênthươngphẩmcủasợi polyamide, cótínhchốngđâmthủngcao, làmviệc ở nhiệtđộnhỏhơn 200 oC (Dan Ng. V., 2003);
    E glass ( sợithủytinhnhóm E) ứngdụngphổbiếnnhất, giáthànhkhôngcao, tỉtrọng 2.56, giớihạnbềnkéo (tensile strength) 3.4 x 105 N/m2 , modulus of elasticity 72x106 N/m2 (Nghi Tr. C., 2005).
  • 17. Properties of Commonly Used Resins (Gray, Hoa and Tsai 2003)
  • 18. Properties of Commonly Used Core Materials (Gray, Hoa and Tsai 2003)
  • 19. Comparison of core material in yacht building (Larsson and Eliasson, 2000)
  • 20. 3. The Methods
    of FRP Composite Fabrication
    of Yacht Builders
  • 21. Molding Process (Qui trìnhtạohình) in Composite Production
    (Gray, Hoa and Tsai, 2003)
  • 22. Layup Methods in Composite Technology
    Rules for Material and Welding (ABS, 2006)
    Chapter 6 Materials for Hull Construction – Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP)
  • 23. Wet/Hand layup
    Material Options **
    Resin: Any, e.g. epoxy, polyester, vinylester, phenolic
    Fibers: Any, although heavy aramid fabrics can be hard to wet-out by hand
    Cores: Any
    Image Source: http://www.netcomposites.com/education.asp?sequence=56
    * Source from ISSC (2009) ; ** Source: http://www.netcomposites.com/education.asp?sequence=56
  • 24. Spray layup method
    Material Options **
    Resin: Primarily polyester
    Fibers: Glass roving only
    Cores: None. These have to be incorporated separately (Phảiđượcđưavàomộtcáchriênglẽ)
    Image Source: http://www.netcomposites.com/education.asp?sequence=55
    * Source from ISSC (2009) ; ** Source: http://www.netcomposites.com/education.asp?sequence=55
  • 25. To improve the hand layup methods is application of vacuum bagging. Usually, this method is used in conjunction with pre-preg (bánthànhphẩm) laminates that are pre-impregnated with resin and strictly obey the manner of the material suppliers. (ISSC, 2009)
    Hand layup method with vacuum compression in the TÛRANOR PlanetSolarPlanetSolar project
    Source: http://www.reinforcedplastics.com/view/10751/carbon-composite-materials-in-modern-yacht-building
  • 26. Vacuum Bagging
    Image Source: http://www.netcomposites.com/education.asp?sequence=57
    Material Options **
    Resin: Primarily epoxy and phenolic. Polyesters and vinylesters may be have problems due to excessive extraction of styrene from the resin by the vacuum pump.
    Fibers: The consolidation pressures mean that a variety of heavy fabrics can be wet-out.
    Cores: Any.
    ** Source: http://www.netcomposites.com/education.asp?sequence=57
  • 27. Resin Infusion/ Infusion Process
    Material Options **
    Resin: Generally epoxy, polyester and vinylester
    Fibers: Any conventional fabrics. Stitched materials work well in this process since the gaps allow rapid transport.
    Cores: Any not including honeycombs (Ngoạitrừdạngtổong)
    Image source: http://www.netcomposites.com/education.asp?sequence=61
    Resin Infusion is a general term. In yacht production, builders refer to Vacuum Infusion or Seeman Composite Resin Infusion Molding Process SCRIMP. Resin Infusion includes Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM)andVacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Moulding (VARTM) (ISSC, 2009).
    ** Source: http://www.netcomposites.com/education.asp?sequence=61
  • 28. Consideration of Infusion Process Application
    in Yacht Building (ISSC, 2009)
    * Source from ISSC (2009)
  • 29. Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM)
    Materials Options:
    Resins: Generally epoxy, polyester, vinylester and phenolic, although high temperature resins such as bismaleimides can be used at elevated process temperatures. Fibres: Any. Stitched materials work well in this process since the gaps allow rapid resin transport. Some specially developed fabrics can assist with resin flow. Cores: Not honeycombs, since cells would fill with resin, and pressures involved can crush some foams.
    Image Source: http://www.netcomposites.com/education.asp?sequence=60
    RTM is in which dry fibers are injected with resin under high pressure in a mold of very stiff male and female parts. This method effectively applies for large production, it is not found in mega and racing yacht production. RTM is assisted by vacuum applied to the stiff mould prior to injection, this is VARTM (ISSC, 2009).
  • 30. 7 Main Steps of Composite Ship Building in Vietnam Shipyard (Nghị Tr. C., 2005)
  • 31. Application of Resin Infusion Techniques at Corsair Marine International in HCM City, Vietnam
    Screen shoot from http://www.corsaircatamarans.com/about.html
  • 32. 4. Composite Technology
    in The Current Yacht Building Practice
    17th International Ship and Offshore Structures Congress, August 2009
  • 33. Materials Selection Criteria (Tiêuchílựachọnvậtliệu) for building hull of yacht (ISSC, 2009)
  • 34. Business Details and Materials Usage Amongst Industrial Organizations (ISSC, 2009)
  • 35. Business Details and Materials Usage Amongst Industrial Organizations (ISSC, 2009) (Cont.)
  • 36. Design Models and Production Methods used by Industrial Organizations (ISSC, 2009)
  • 37. Design Models and Production Methods used by Industrial Organizations (ISSC, 2009) (Cont.)
  • 38. 5. Survey of Moulding
    Rules for The Survey and Construction of Ship of Fiberglass Reinforced Plastics (ClassNK, 2010)
  • 39. In this section, all Vietnamese notes I refer to TCVN 6282:2003 (VR, 2003) in surveying FRP yacht production.
    Before moulding, considerating the below steps in Regulation 5.1.6 (ClassNK, 2010):
    1- Environmental conditions of laminating shops (điềukiệnmôitrườngphânxưởngdát), controlling system thereof and curing time of resins (thờigianxửlýnhựa)
    2- Operation procedure (qui trìnhcôngnghệ) and scheduled operation process (quátrìnhcôngnghệđãđượclậptrình)
    3- Kinds (chủngloại), cutting methods, overlap of joints (phầnphủlêncácmốinối), edge preparation (chuẩnbịmép) and number of plies of fiberglass reinforcements (sốlượnglớpcốtsợithủytinh)
    4- Kinds, amount, blending quatity at one time (lượngphatrộntrongmộtlần) and blending procedures of resins used (qui trìnhphatrộnnhựađượcdùng)
  • 40. Regulation 5.1.7 Enviromental Conditions of Laminating Shops (Rule of ClassNK, 2010)
    • The temperature while laminating is to be kept suitable for the resins used (đượcgiữthíchhợpvớinhựađượcsửdụng) and not to be lower than 150 C.
    • 41. The humidity while laminating is preferable to be not lower than 60%, but not higher than 80%.
    • 42. Dusts (bụi), rubbishes (vậtvôdụng) and detrimental fumes (khóiđộchại) in the laminating shops are to cleared off as far as practicable.
    Regulation 5.1.8 Gelcoats (Lớpnhựaphủ) (Rules of ClassNK, 2010)
    • Gelcoat resins are to be coated (đượcbọc, baophủ) or sprayed (đượcphunđều)
    • 43. The standard thickness of gelcoat film ( lớpnhựaphủ) is approximately 0.5 mm
    Regulation 5.1.11 Cut Edges of Laminates (Mépcắtcủalớp) (ClassNK, 2010)
    • The cut edges of laminates, holes for bolts, etc. are to be thoroughly covered (chechắnhoàntoàn) with resin so that the fiberglass reinforcements (cốtsợithủytinh) are not exposed.
  • Regulation 5.1.12 Mould Releasing (Tháokhuôn) (ClassNK, 2010)
    • Mould releasing operation is to be carefully carried out lest permanent deformations and damages harmful to the hull laminates should be caused.
    • 44. After releasing, the hull laminates (cáclớpthântàu) are to be supported by an area as wide as practicable so that they are subjected to a uniform load (tảiphânbốđều).
    Composite Hull Release applied SCRIMP technology in Horizon Shipyard
    Screen shoot source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k1quabWb8vk&feature=player_embedded
    Horizon’s homepage < http://www.horizonpowercatamarans.com >
  • 45. Contact Molding (Khuôntiếpxúc ) applying hand lay – up (R&G, 2009)
    Hand lay-up method
    Regulation 5.2.1 Seams of Fiberglass Reinforcements (Mốinốicáccốtsợithủytinh) (ClassNK, 2010)
    • Fiberglass reinforcements are to be arranged so as to have seams of reinforcements as few as practicable. The overlap at seams is not to be less than 50mm (Phầncốtsợithủytinhphủlênmốinốiphảikhôngnhỏhơn 50mm). The centre lines of overlaps of two adjacent plies (đườngtâmcủa 2 lớpcốtsợikếtiếp) are not be less than 100mm apart from each(cáchnhauítnhất 100mm) so far as no obstruction exist for the work.
  • Regulation 5.2.2 Degassing (khửkhí) (ClassNK, 2010)
    • In laminating, after having the fiberglass reinforcements thoroughly (careful) impregnated with resin (đượctẩmvớinhựa), air bubbles in the resin are to be removed by degassing rollers (trụclănkhửkhí)or rubber pallets (bànxoacaosu). However, excessive squeezing of resin is not desirable (nhựakhôngnênbịépquáđáng) and care is to be taken to keep the glass content proper.
    Wet/Hand Lay-up Method
    Image Source: http://www.netcomposites.com/education.asp?sequence=56
  • 46. Regulation 5.2.3 Glass Content ( Hàmlượngthủytinh) (ClassNK, 2010)
    • In laminating, the standard glass content (ratio in weight) is approximately 30% in case of chopped mats (tấmsợibăm) or approximately 50% in case of roving cloths (vảisợithô)and laminating is to be carried out uniformly to avoid local excess or scarcity of resin (dátđềutránhthừahoặcthiếunhựacụcbộ).
    • 47. The aggregated weight of roving cloths (trọnglượngchấtđộncủavảisợithô) is to be 25% to 60% of the total weight of glass. Where, however, special fiberglass reinforcements are used, the weight is to be in accordance with the discretion of society (sựchấpnhậncủaĐăngkiểm).
    Regulation 5.2.4 Laminating (dát) (ClassNK, 2010)
    • Where the successive laminating is interrupted (quátrìnhdátbịgiánđoạn) in such a case of laminating thick shell plating, etc., non-paraffin resins are to be used forthe first of any subsequent layers (nhựakhôngcóparafinphảiđượcdùngcholớpthứ 1 củacáclớptiếptheo) of reinforcement to be laid in that area and care is to be taken not to leave over the excessive resin layer (thậntrọngđểkhôngđểlạilớpnhựaquáthừa)
    Regulation 5.2.5 Laminating For Final Ply (dátlớpsaucùng) (ClassNK, 2010)
    • As for laminating for the final ply, effective measures to cure the outer surface are to be provided.
  • Spray lay-up Method
    Regulation 5.3.2 Moulding of Primary Structural Members (Tạohìnhcáccơcấucơbản) (ClassNk, 2010)
    • Where the chopped mat parts (phầntấmsợibăm) of primary structural members of hull are moulded by means of the spray lay-up method, the method is to be approved by the Society.
    Laminating using Spray lay-up method
    Image source: www.composites.ugent.be/home_made_composites/organizing_your_composite_workshop.html
  • 48. Sandwich Construction (Kếtcấunhiềulớp)
    Regulation 5.4.1 Cores (Lõi) (ClassNK, 2010)
    • Where the cores which are composed of hard plastic foams (bọtnhựacứng) are temporarily set by nails (đượcđóngtạmbằngđinh), care to be taken to ensure that the cores are free from dent (bịdập), misalignment (bịlệch) and other defects due to nailing (Khuyếttậtkhác do đóngđinh). And, no penetrating clearance not less than 1mm is to be left between the cores(Giữacáclõi, khehởkhônglớnhơn 1mm).
    • 49. Where balsas are used for cores, care is to be taken to have the balsas thoroughly impregnated with resins (cẩntrọngđểgỗ Balsa tẩmđềuvớinhựa). The clearance between the balsas is, as a rule, not to be more than 4mm.
    Strength and Stiffness in Sandwich vs Solid (Larsson and Eliasson, 2000)
  • 50. Regulation 5.5.1 Bonding (Gắn) (ClassNK, 2010)
    • Bonding is to be executed after making effective preparation such as sanding the surface to be bonded (mặtđểgắnphảiđượcđánhcát) and thoroughly removing oils (khửdầu) and sanding dusts (bụicát).
    • 51. Bonding is to be executed paying careful attention not to cause spring back of fiberglass reinforcements (phảithậntrọngđểcốtsợithủytinhkhôngbịnẩyngược).
    • 52. Bonding is to be carefully executed so as not to cause any deformation due to excessive exothermic effect (ảnhhưởngnhiệt).
    • 53. Bonding is to be carefully carried out so as not to cause strength discontinuity at the joint (phảithậntrọngđểđộbềnkhôngbịgiánđoạn ở cácliênkết).
    • 54. T-joints and L-joints are to be laminated at the site (phảiđượctạohình ở hiệntrường).
    Regulation 5.5.2 Fastening (Ghép) (ClassNK, 2010)
    • Where laminates are connected each other (cáclớpliênkếtvớinhau) or where metallic fittings are fastened to laminates(các chi tiếtkimloạiliênkếtvớicáclớp), mechanical fastening may be applied. In this case, the fasteners such as bolts, rivets, screws, etc. are to be sea-water-corrosion –resistent metal or to be properly protected against corrosion.
  • Regulation 5.5.3 Bolts (bulông) (ClassNK, 2010)
    • The distance between the center of bolt hole and the edge of laminate (khoảngcáchtừtâmlỗđặtbulôngđếnmépcủalớp) is not to be less than three times the diameter of the hole. The distance between the bolt holes (khoảngcáchgiữacáclỗđặtbulông) is not ot be less than three times diameter of the hole.
    • 55. Where bolts are used, washers are to be used on the surface of laminate (đặtvànhđệmlênmặtlớp).
    Regulation 5.5.4 Connection of Sandwich Laminates (Liênkếtcáclớpcủakếtcấunhiềulớp) (ClassNK, 2010)
    • Where bolts (bu-lông), screw (đinhvít), rivets (đinhtán), etc., are used, penetrating sandwich laminateswith cores of hard plastic foams (xuyên qua kếtcấunhiềulớpcólõilàbọtnhựacứng), timbers (gỗ) or plywoods (vánép, gỗdán) well seasoned are to be inserted in such parts of the cores in advance(phảiđượcđặtxenvàophầnlõiđótừtrước).
    Regulation 5.5.5 Watertight Construction (kếtcấukínnước) (ClassNK, 2010)
    • Where mechanical fastening (ghépcơkhí) such as bolted joints (mốighépbulông), etc., is used in way of a location where watertightness is required, suitable measures (biệnphápthíchhợp) are to be provided to maintain watertightness (đảmbảotínhkínnước).
  • Regulation 5.6.1 T-joints (liênkếtchữ T) (ClassNK, 2010)
    • The overlap width of T- joints of structural members are generally to be in accordance with Fig.5.1.
    • 56. In T- Joints of members of sandwich construction, the aggregated thickness (chiềudàytổngcộng) of the inner laminate and the outer laminate of FRP may be used as the thickness (t) shown in Fig.5.1.
    • 57. The form of laminating of T Joints is to be as shown in Fig.5.2 (a) and Fig. 5.2 (b).
  • (Kíchthướcphầnchồngcủaliênkếtchữ T)
    (ClassNK, 2010)
    Overlap
    (Khôngnhỏhơn 6t hoặc 40mm lấytrịsốnàolớnhơn)
  • 58. Trườnghợptấmsợibămvàvảisợithôđượcdùngđểliênkết
    (ClassNK, 2010)
    (Bộtnhựamềmdáttheogóclượn)
  • 59. Trườnghợpdùngtấmsợibăm (tấmsợivôhướng)
    (ClassNK, 2010)
    (Bộtnhựamềmdáttheogóclượn)
  • 60. Regulation 5.6.1 T-joints (liênkếtchữ T) (ClassNK, 2010)
    (Cont.)
    • Where the members such as engin girders, bulkheads, etc., which are subjected to considerably heavy load or vibration are connected, careful considerations are to be given in such a manner as to arrange structural members upon the laminates which are increased in thickness as shown in Fig.5.3 (a)
    • 61. Where the members other than those specified in the preceding -4, that is, the members which are not deemed subjected to specially heavy load or vibration, are connected to the structural members, plastic foam or other similar materials are to be inserted between the member and the laminate as shown in Fig. 5.3 (b) or the corners are to be sufficiently laminated by filling with soft resin puttys(bộtnhựamềm) or other similar materials as shown in Fig.5.3 (c).
  • Trườnghợpcơcấuchịutảitrọnghoặc rung độngnhưbệmáy, vách…
    (ClassNK, 2010)
    Trongchỗliênkếtvớicơcấulớpvỏđượctăngchiềudày
  • 62. Dạngchuẩncủaliênkếtchữ T
    (ClassNK, 2010)
    Bọtnhựađượcđặtgiữacơcấuvàcáclớp
    Tấmphủ
    Tấmtrong
  • 63. (ClassNK, 2010)
  • 64. References
    TrầnCôngNghị. 2005. Thiếtkếtàucỡnhỏchạynhanh (Small High-speed Craft Design). Vietnam National University Pulisher. HCMC. Vietnam
    NguyễnVănDán. 2003. Côngnghệvậtliệumới (Modern Material Technology). Vietnam National University Pulisher. HCMC. Vietnam
    Lars Larsson and Rolf E Eliasson. 2000. Principle of Yacht Design. Adlard Coles Nautical. London. Great Britain
    International Ship and Offshore Structures Congress (ISSC). 2009. Committee V8: Sailing yacht Design. Seoul. Korea. 433p - 492p
    Jürgen Klimke and Daniel Rothmann. 06 July 2010. Carbon composite materials in modern yacht building, < http://www.reinforcedplastics.com/view/10751/carbon-composite-materials-in-modern-yacht-building/ >
    American Bureau of Shipping (ABS). 2000. Guide for Building and Classing of Motor Pleasure Yachts. New York. USA
    American Bureau of Shipping (ABS). 2006. Rules for Materials and Welding – Aluminium and Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP). New York. USA
    ClassNK. 2010. Rules for Survey and Construction of Ship of Fiberglass. Tokyo. Japan
    Vietnam Register (VR). TCVN 6282: 2003 Qui PhạmKiểmTravàChếTạoCácTàuLàmBằngChấtDẻoCốtSợiThủyTinh (Rules for the Survey and Construction of Ships of Fiberglass Reinforced Plastics). Ha Noi. Vietnam
    Daniel Gray, Suong V. Hoa and Stephen W. Tsai. 2003. Composite Meterials– Design and Application. CRC Press LLC. USA
    R&G Faserverbundwerkstoffe. 2009. Composite Material Handbook, < http://download.r-g.de/handbuch_edition_06_09.pdf>
  • 65. Thanks for your view
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