Chapter 8 Power Point


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Chapter 8 Power Point

  1. 1. Chapter 8 The Cultural Context of Interpersonal Communication
  2. 2. The Cultural Context <ul><li>Elements of the cultural context </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal communication </li></ul><ul><li>Use of language </li></ul><ul><li>Implications </li></ul>
  3. 3. Culture <ul><li>Shared beliefs, values, customs, and symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing produces a sense of community and provides members with a feeling of belonging and solidarity </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is a product of learning; each generation passes on to the next lessons about values, beliefs, and behaviors </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ethnic Identity Acquisition <ul><li>Stage One: Unexamined Cultural Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Stage Two: Cultural Identity Search </li></ul><ul><li>Stage Three: Cultural Identity Achievement </li></ul>
  5. 5. Ethnocentrism <ul><li>“ The belief that one’s culture is the center of everything and superior to other cultures” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Xenophobia <ul><li>“ An irrational state of mind characterized by an abnormal fear or hatred of foreigners ” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cultural Frame of Reference <ul><li>Differences in Value Orientations — what members of a culture consider important </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in Person Perceptions — how members of culture make sense of others </li></ul>
  8. 8. Value Orientations <ul><li>Individualism </li></ul><ul><li>Inequality </li></ul><ul><li>Masculinity </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Time Orientation </li></ul>
  9. 9. Individualism vs. Collectivism Feature Individualistic Collectivistic Definition Separate from others. Connected to others. Structure of self Stable. Flexible. Key features Internal, private. External, public. Tasks Be unique. Express yourself. Promote own goals. Be direct (say what’s on mind) Belong; fit in. Stay in your place. Promote others goals. Be indirect (read others' minds) Basis of self-esteem Ability to express self. Validate internal attributes Ability to adjust and restrain. Maintain social harmony
  10. 10. Person Perceptions and Culture <ul><li>East Asian Societies are collectivistic and engage in holistic thinking; Western societies are individualistic and engage in analytic thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental research confirms differences in focus on individual as part of context or apart from context . </li></ul>
  11. 11. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Physical Appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Space, Gaze, Touch </li></ul><ul><li>Facial Expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Gestures </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal Expressions </li></ul>
  12. 12. Physical Appearance <ul><li>Differences in Body Modification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tattoos, Scarification and Piercing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diet and exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Differences in Clothing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional attire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbols of status and rank </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Personal Space, Gaze, and Touch <ul><li>Contact and Non-Contact Cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South America and North America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern Europe and Northern Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediterranean and Asian Countries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meanings of Touch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Touch Rituals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender Differences </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Facial Expressions <ul><li>Cultural Display Rules Differ </li></ul><ul><li>Matsumoto’s Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualism vs. Collectivism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High vs. Low Power Distance </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Gestures <ul><li>Multi-message Gestures </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-gesture Messages </li></ul><ul><li>Unique Gestures </li></ul>
  16. 16. Vocal Expression <ul><li>Speech Accents and Dialects </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal Volume Varies </li></ul>
  17. 17. Some Unique Gestures Country Gesture Action Meaning Origin Indonesia Armpit tickle Forefinger tickles gesturer’s own armpit Poor joke The joke is so bad I’d have to tickle myself to laugh Greece Palm thrust (known as “moutza” gesture) Palm is thrust toward other as if pushing something into person’s face Go to hell Symbolizes ancient practice of pushing filth into face of chained-up criminals Holland Eyes blind Fingertips are held over closed eyes I swear it’s true Swearing an oath: “May I be struck blind if I’m not telling the truth” Saudi Arabia Ear circle Forefinger makes a circling motion around the ear Be good or else Stylized threat by parent toward a misbehaving child. Threatens to pull ear as punishment Italy Eyes flap The flat hand is flapped up and down in front of the eyes You are crazy Implies that person has distorted vision; can’t see straight
  18. 18. Language Differences: The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis <ul><li>Linguistic determinism </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic Relativity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language effects </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. High Context Vs. Low Context Cultures <ul><li>High context cultures: Listener focused (they determine more meaning than the listener), Collectivistic, Arab, Asian, South American, African </li></ul><ul><li>Low context cultures: Speaker focused, clear and complete messages, individualistic, Western cultures </li></ul>
  20. 20. Verbal Communication Styles <ul><li>Direct style </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect style </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental style </li></ul><ul><li>Affective style </li></ul><ul><li>Exacting style </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborate style </li></ul><ul><li>Succinct style </li></ul><ul><li>Person-centered style </li></ul><ul><li>Role-centered style </li></ul>
  21. 21. High vs Low Context Communication <ul><li>High context: The sender does not encode large amounts of information. Communication is implicit. The most crucial information is internalized in the receiver or is in the context. Ex: Best Friends, twins </li></ul><ul><li>Low Context: Information is explicit. The receiver does not have to read into anything in order to understand the intended message. Ex: lawyers </li></ul>
  22. 22. Direct Vs. Indirect <ul><li>Direct: Blunt, say exactly what they mean, honesty motivated </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect: “beating around the bush,” do not say exactly what they mean; to maintain relationships, face saving is a major benefit. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Instrumental Vs. Affective <ul><li>Instrumental: Focus is on the sender and the task/goal at hand; want to accomplish a personal goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Affective: Equal focus on the listener, more concerned with entire process/interaction; think holistically and about the relationship </li></ul>
  24. 24. Exacting, Elaborative, or Succinct <ul><li>Exacting: Does not use more or less language than is needed; honest and to the point </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborative: Rich, expressive language (can seem wordy or dramatic to others), use metaphors and similes. </li></ul><ul><li>Succinct: deliberately give a small amount of information, understatement, silence, especially used in anxiety ridden situations </li></ul>
  25. 25. Person vs. Role centered <ul><li>Person Centered: Frequently use first person pronouns, downplay the differences between people, informal. </li></ul><ul><li>Role Centered: Formal, the status of the speakers is taken into account, use honorifics, use formal titles. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Relationship Between Dimensions of Culture and Verbal Style Cultural Dimension Low Context High Context Individualistic Direct style Instrumental style Collectivistic I ndirect style Affective style Low uncertainty avoidance Exacting style Moderate uncertainty avoidance Elaborate style High uncertainty avoidance Succinct style Low power distance Person-centered style High power distance Role-centered style
  27. 27. Implications for Intercultural Encounters: Conversational Skills <ul><li>Greeting and Leave Taking </li></ul><ul><li>Exchanging Information </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging Politeness </li></ul>
  28. 28. Implications for Intercultural Encounters: Conflict Management Skills <ul><li>Perspectives on Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Orientations Toward Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria for Conflict Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Constructs </li></ul><ul><li>Message Strategies </li></ul>