course/learning collection E. PRODUCT LCD ECODESIGN subject E3. Life Cycle Assessment & Methodologies learning resource Li...
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) The aim of Life Cycle Assessment (or Analyses) is  to provide a quantitative answer on the que...
Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) <ul><li>The Issues in the first hour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why should you make an LCA?  </li></u...
People Profit www.ecocostsvalue.com  Fig. 1.2 complex trade-off: short term – long term  distribution of prosperity (our o...
“ The delivery of competitively priced goods and services  that satisfy human needs and bring ‘quality of life’,  while pr...
companies consumer & citizen government politics regulations marketing www.ecocostsvalue.com  Fig. 1.4 Interaction of the ...
emissions materials energy ENVIRONMENTAL BURDEN COSTS PRICE ? when in future <ul><li>-  Best Available Technology </li></u...
Product portfolio matrix for product strategy of companies Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues www.ecocostsvalue.com  Fig. 4....
Corrugated box for fruits Plastic re-usable crate for fruits
The 5 main strategies for a designer to lower the eco-burden of a product design  <ul><li>selection of less harmful materi...
materials processing production recycling use maintenance emissions to water and soil emissions to air materials energy la...
Input: materials energy transport Output: Primary product or service (secondary product) (energy) Recycled materials waste...
Example: Sheep for  slaughtering at farm gate emissions to air   480 (!) lines There are LCIs of 5000 (!) processes in the...
12 There are LCIs of 4500 (!) processes in the  ecoinvent v2 and Idemat databases  Example: Sheep for  slaughtering at far...
13 The “tree” of a meal Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues www.ecocostsvalue.com kitchen sheep from  farm butcher slaughter ...
The “tree” of a Senseo coffee machine Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues www.ecocostsvalue.com materials materials materials...
<ul><li>3 types of single indicator systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>based on CO2 equiv. only  the Carbon Footprint </li></u...
22 Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues The Carbon Footprint: the simplistic approach <ul><li>Throw away 99% of the list: coun...
from Pré Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues The Ecoindicator 99, a damage based system Source M. Goedkoop,   www .pre.nl LCI...
Emissions  to air,  water  soil Exposure Disabilities with several levels of severity Weighting of disabilities DALY Disab...
Recipe, the new system, better, but even more complex Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues Source M. Goedkoop,   www .pre.nl S...
“ the eco-costs are the costs of prevention measures,  which are required to reduce the current emissions,  to a sustainab...
Prevention costs norm for  sustainability measures prevention 100% 0% line b curve a = “no effect level” Eco-costs are bas...
<ul><li>Eco-costs of emissions (the marginal ‘pollution prevention costs’) 2007: </li></ul><ul><li>acidification: 7,55  €/...
. Eco-costs Eco-costs of materials  depletion Eco-costs of energy  and transport Eco-costs of  emissions electricity trans...
The Life Cycle Inventory Analysis: Each emission has its own multiplier  (example greenhouse gasses in Simapro)  Goal&Scop...
Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues “ Fast track”: don’t bother about LCI and LCIA   but take directly the output data of fro...
Which choice? <ul><li>It is a matter of taste, it depends on the situation, however, I prefer the Eco-costs 2007: </li></u...
Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) <ul><li>The Issues in the first hour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why should you make an LCA?  </li></u...
Case 1: transport packaging <ul><li>“ transporting vegetables from the Dutch greenhouse to the retail shop in Frankfurt” <...
The case: LCA on Transport Packaging transport of vegetables from greenhouse to retailer Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues ...
The case: LCA on Transport Packaging the box and the crate, but what is the functional unit? www.ecocostsvalue.com  Fig. 6...
The case: LCA on Transport Packaging   the key to low eco-costs is transport efficiency Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues w...
Plastic crate Corr. board tray storage packaging transport 0 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,016 0,012 0,004 0,008 Value (Euro per l...
Issue 1. Functional Unit and System Boundaries <ul><li>Life Cycle Analyses is not “rocket science”. </li></ul><ul><li>Howe...
Issue 2. Quality Life Cycle Analyses is about comparison of 2 or more solutions This implies that the following must be th...
Issue 3. Allocation Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues When the output of a system has more than 1 product (or service), the...
“ classical” boundary limit eco-costs system Issue 4. Carbon sequestration (=capture&storage) www.ecocostsvalue.com Goal&S...
production use (20 yr) recycling 100% 40% Issue 5. Recycling percentage www.ecocostsvalue.com Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Is...
Issue 6. Cradle to Cradle calculations www.ecocostsvalue.com  Fig. 2.3 Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues production Separat...
Cradle to Cradle = “closing the loop” Case: Rebicycle www.ecocostsvalue.com  Fig. 3.1b Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues In...
Issue 7. Use LCA data right at the early design stages Output from Cambridge Engineering Selector (CES) Goal&Scope LCI LCI...
Success with your LCA ! (you may always mail me for questions joost”at”vogtlander.nl) Conclusions <ul><li>LCA for products...
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Joost Vogtlander_Life Cycle Assessment - part 1

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Joost Vogtlander_Life Cycle Assessment - part 1

  1. 1. course/learning collection E. PRODUCT LCD ECODESIGN subject E3. Life Cycle Assessment & Methodologies learning resource Life Cycle Assessment contributors: Joost G. Vogtl ä nder Delft University of Technology/ Industrial Design Engineering / The Netherlands LeNS, the Learning Network on Sustainability: Asian-European multi-polar network for curricula development on Design for Sustainability focused on product service system innovation. Funded by the Asia-Link Programme, EuroAid, European Commission.
  2. 2. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) The aim of Life Cycle Assessment (or Analyses) is to provide a quantitative answer on the question whether a product and/or service is ‘green’ or not What is this method? When do you use it? What is behind it? How do you apply it in practice? (a Case) Issues you should be aware of ! P P P
  3. 3. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) <ul><li>The Issues in the first hour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why should you make an LCA? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The basis of the LCA: the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life Cycle Inventory Analyses (LCIA): “single indicator” systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Issues in the second hour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case on transport packaging: an LCA in practice (the “Fast Track”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues you should be aware of </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Details at www.ecocostsvalue.com </li></ul>Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues
  4. 4. People Profit www.ecocostsvalue.com Fig. 1.2 complex trade-off: short term – long term distribution of prosperity (our own prosperity) (the poor in the 3rd world) Planet (our future environment) LCA model - pollution - materials depletion Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues LCA is about 1 aspect of Sustainability: the P of Planet …… however, it has also a bit to do with the economy
  5. 5. “ The delivery of competitively priced goods and services that satisfy human needs and bring ‘quality of life’, while progressively reducing ecological impacts and resource intensity, throughout the lifecycle, to a level at least in line with the earth’s estimated carrying capacity” (WBCSD, 1995) “ What we need now is a new era of economic growth – growth that is forceful and at the same time socially and environmentally sustainable.” (Brundtland, 1987) value ‘profit’ eco-costs ‘planet’ The triple P model is not about “or” but about “and” Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues www.ecocostsvalue.com Fig. 1.1
  6. 6. companies consumer & citizen government politics regulations marketing www.ecocostsvalue.com Fig. 1.4 Interaction of the 3 stakeholders on the road towards sustainability Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues
  7. 7. emissions materials energy ENVIRONMENTAL BURDEN COSTS PRICE ? when in future <ul><li>- Best Available Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Tradable Emission Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Eco-tax, etcetera </li></ul>*) The relevance for a company Environmental burden will gradually become internal costs as a consequence of governmental regulations*)! The question is not if but when . P P P
  8. 8. Product portfolio matrix for product strategy of companies Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues www.ecocostsvalue.com Fig. 4.4a Short Term no market Short Term success Long Term no market Quit now Long term Core Product Low High Quality/Costs High Low relative “ eco-burden” LCA
  9. 9. Corrugated box for fruits Plastic re-usable crate for fruits
  10. 10. The 5 main strategies for a designer to lower the eco-burden of a product design <ul><li>selection of less harmful materials </li></ul><ul><li>less energy in production and use phase </li></ul><ul><li>less transport </li></ul><ul><li>recycling of materials </li></ul><ul><li>make products durable </li></ul><ul><li>… but how do you know that your solution is better than an other ?? </li></ul><ul><li>… analyse the pollution and materials depletion “from cradle to grave”. </li></ul>Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues www.ecocostsvalue.com Fig. 4.4b
  11. 11. materials processing production recycling use maintenance emissions to water and soil emissions to air materials energy landfill An LCA provides data on the environmental burden “from cradle to grave” www.ecocostsvalue.com Fig. 2.1a Step 1: Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Step 2: Life Cycle Inventory Analyses (LCIA) Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues
  12. 12. Input: materials energy transport Output: Primary product or service (secondary product) (energy) Recycled materials waste land fill emissions to air emissions to water and soil Process and subprocesses The Life Cycle Inventory: the basic structure Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues www.ecocostsvalue.com Fig. 3.1b
  13. 13. Example: Sheep for slaughtering at farm gate emissions to air 480 (!) lines There are LCIs of 5000 (!) processes in the Ecoinvent v2 and Idemat databases Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues www.ecocostsvalue.com
  14. 14. 12 There are LCIs of 4500 (!) processes in the ecoinvent v2 and Idemat databases Example: Sheep for slaughtering at farm gate (the first level only) Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues www.ecocostsvalue.com Fig. 3.3
  15. 15. 13 The “tree” of a meal Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues www.ecocostsvalue.com kitchen sheep from farm butcher slaughter house vegetables from farm retail store food company wine from chateau wine boutique wine import emissions & materials depletion
  16. 16. The “tree” of a Senseo coffee machine Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues www.ecocostsvalue.com materials materials materials materials materials materials assembly boiler + electrical materials housing materials water system materials emissions & materials depletion
  17. 17. <ul><li>3 types of single indicator systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>based on CO2 equiv. only the Carbon Footprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>based on damage the Ecoindicator 99 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>based on prevention costs the Eco-costs 2007 </li></ul></ul>Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues The next step: Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) = creating a “single indicator” www.ecocostsvalue.com
  18. 18. 22 Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues The Carbon Footprint: the simplistic approach <ul><li>Throw away 99% of the list: count CO 2 (equiv.) only </li></ul><ul><li>(the “Al Gore approach”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage: it is simple in practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantage: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>toxic substances (e.g. fine dust, heavy metals, etc.) are not taken into account </li></ul>www.ecocostsvalue.com
  19. 19. from Pré Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues The Ecoindicator 99, a damage based system Source M. Goedkoop, www .pre.nl LCI result Raw materials Land use CO2 VOS P SO2 NOx CFC Cd PAH DDT Single score very sophisticated but quite complex rather subjective weighting Eco-systems Human health (DALY) Re-sources Ozone layer Climate Carcinogens Respiratory (2) Eco-tox acid. nutri. land use fossil fuels Minerals
  20. 20. Emissions to air, water soil Exposure Disabilities with several levels of severity Weighting of disabilities DALY Disability adjusted life years Food From emissions to human health, a complex calculation Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues Source M. Goedkoop, www .pre.nl
  21. 21. Recipe, the new system, better, but even more complex Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues Source M. Goedkoop, www .pre.nl Single score Resources Surpus cost Human health DALY Ecosystems PDF.m 2. .yr LCI result Raw mat. Land use CO2 VOS P SO2 NOx CFC Cd PAH DDT Decr. Ozone P. Ozone Conc. Hazard. W. Dose Absorbed Dose PM10 Conc. Infra-red Forcing Energy Content Decrease Conc. Hazard W. Conc. Algae Growth Algae Growth . Hazard W. Conc Hazard W. Conc. Occupied Area Base Saturation Transformed area Water use Climate Change Ozone depletion Radiation Hum tox Particulate Form. P. C. Ozone Form. Minerals Cons. Fossil fuel Cons. Marine Ecotox. Marine Eutr. Fresh water Eutr. Fresh W. Ecotox Nat. Land Transf. Urban Land Occ. Terr.Ecotox Agr. Land Occ. Terr. Acidif. Water Cons. Damage Damage Damage Damage Damage Damage Terr. Damage Fresh. Damage Marine Damage
  22. 22. “ the eco-costs are the costs of prevention measures, which are required to reduce the current emissions, to a sustainable level” Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues A total different concept: the Eco-costs 2007 based on the ‘marginal prevention costs’ it are “hidden obligations” www.ecocostsvalue.com Fig. 2.1b X X X X X X X X materials production recycling use maintenance emissions to water and soil emissions to air materials energy X X X
  23. 23. Prevention costs norm for sustainability measures prevention 100% 0% line b curve a = “no effect level” Eco-costs are based on marginal prevention costs: www.ecocostsvalue.com Fig. 2.2a Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues
  24. 24. <ul><li>Eco-costs of emissions (the marginal ‘pollution prevention costs’) 2007: </li></ul><ul><li>acidification: 7,55 €/kg SO x equivalent </li></ul><ul><li>eutrophication: 3,60 €/kg phosphate equivalent </li></ul><ul><li>eco toxicity: 802 €/kg Zn equivalent </li></ul><ul><li>carciogenics: 14,5 €/kg PAH equivalent </li></ul><ul><li>summer smog: 3,54 €/kg VOC equivalent </li></ul><ul><li>fine dust: 14,5 €/kg fine dust PM10 </li></ul><ul><li>global warming: 0,135 €/ kg CO 2 equivalent </li></ul><ul><li>Marginal external costs related to health problems, from the </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits Table database of the European Commission DG Environment: </li></ul><ul><li>The Netherlands EU-15 average </li></ul><ul><li>acidification: 7,00 €/kg 5,20 €/kg (SO x equivalent) </li></ul><ul><li>Fine dust: 18,0 €/kg 14,0 €/kg (fine dust PM2.5) </li></ul><ul><li>summer smog: 2,40 €/kg 2,10 €/kg (VOC equivalent) </li></ul>Comparison of eco-costs and ‘external damage costs’: prevention results in less damage www.ecocostsvalue.com Fig. 2.1c Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues
  25. 25. . Eco-costs Eco-costs of materials depletion Eco-costs of energy and transport Eco-costs of emissions electricity transport heat global warming acidification eco-toxicity eutrofication summer smog fine dust carciogenics metals fossil fuels emissions of substances to: air, water, ground “ system oriented” - oil - gas - coal - ferro - non ferro - wood substances “ midpoints” characterisation factors “ marginal prevention costs” normalisation factors addition (no weighting) “ eco-costs” wood The main structure of eco-costs (as a “single indicator” of LCA) www.ecocostsvalue.com Fig. 2.1a Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues
  26. 26. The Life Cycle Inventory Analysis: Each emission has its own multiplier (example greenhouse gasses in Simapro) Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues Eco-costs 2007: 1 kg CO2 equ = 0,135 € kg CO2 equ / kg Eco-costs of more than 3000 substances in total
  27. 27. Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues “ Fast track”: don’t bother about LCI and LCIA but take directly the output data of from an excel table (more than 5000 single indicators) www.ecocostsvalue.com tab data www.ecocostsvalue.com materials Eco-costs Carbon Footprint Ecoindicator 99 BEES
  28. 28. Which choice? <ul><li>It is a matter of taste, it depends on the situation, however, I prefer the Eco-costs 2007: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a straightforward calculation system, without weighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is related to BATNEC (best available technologies not entailing excessive costs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a proxy for future levels of tradable emission rights or taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is suitable for Cradle to Cradle calculations, taking into account recycling (“closing the loop”) and generation of energy at the End of Life (the Ecoindicator 99 and the Carbon Footprint are not suitable for C2C calculations) </li></ul></ul>Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues www.ecocostsvalue.com
  29. 29. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) <ul><li>The Issues in the first hour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why should you make an LCA? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The basis of the LCA: the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life Cycle Inventory Analyses (LCIA): “single indicator” systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Issues in the second hour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case: transport packaging: an LCA in practice (the “Fast Track”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues you should be aware of </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Details at www.ecocostsvalue.com </li></ul>Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues
  30. 30. Case 1: transport packaging <ul><li>“ transporting vegetables from the Dutch greenhouse to the retail shop in Frankfurt” </li></ul>Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues www.ecocostsvalue.com
  31. 31. The case: LCA on Transport Packaging transport of vegetables from greenhouse to retailer Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues www.ecocostsvalue. com Fig. 6.1a greenhouses auction distri centers retailers <ul><li>Partly usage of several service systems: </li></ul><ul><li>Trucks fork lift trucks warehouses transport packaging </li></ul><ul><li>fuel - electricity - energy - energy - labor - labor - labor - labor - equipment - equipment - buildings - materials </li></ul>Plus Roads
  32. 32. The case: LCA on Transport Packaging the box and the crate, but what is the functional unit? www.ecocostsvalue.com Fig. 6.1b Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues Corrugated BOX Plastic CRATE Size (L,W,H) (m) 0,6 x 0,4 x 0,24 0,6 x 0,4 x 0,24 Volume (litres) 53,40 43,92 Weight (kg) 1,086 1,95 Eco-costs (€/kg) 0,173 1,02 Eco-costs (€/unit) 0,188 2,00 Nr of trips 1 30 Eco-costs (€/trip) 0,188 0,067 Eco-costs (€/litre) 0,0035 0,0015 (green numbers are from the database) … .however, the functional unit is not packaging volume, but transport….
  33. 33. The case: LCA on Transport Packaging the key to low eco-costs is transport efficiency Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues www.ecocostsvalue.com Fig. 6.1a (green numbers are from the database) Corrugated BOXES Plastic CRATES Litres per pallet 2670 2196 Litres per truck 69.420 57.096 Eco-costs of: - truck+trailer (€/km) 0,473 0,473 - driver (€/km) 0,015 0,015 - road €/km) 0,135 0,135 Subtotal (€/km) 0,623 0,623 Km full loaded t+t 500 + 500 * 0,3 = 650 km 500 + 500 = 1000 km Eco-costs (€/trip) 405 623 Eco-costs (€/litre) 0,0058 0,0109 Full-load Truck+trailer (26 pallets, distance 500 km)
  34. 34. Plastic crate Corr. board tray storage packaging transport 0 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,016 0,012 0,004 0,008 Value (Euro per litre) Eco-costs (Euro per litre) (no return freight) feeding The case: Transport of vegetables from a Dutch greenhouse to a retail shop in Frankfurt (FEFCO study, corrugated board tray system with 70% return freight) www.ecocostsvalue. com Fig. 6.1d Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues
  35. 35. Issue 1. Functional Unit and System Boundaries <ul><li>Life Cycle Analyses is not “rocket science”. </li></ul><ul><li>However, you should define carefully what you want (especially when services are added) in terms of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. The System Functionality (the “Functional Unit”), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. The System Boundaries (not too narrow!) </li></ul></ul>Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues www.ecocostsvalue. com
  36. 36. Issue 2. Quality Life Cycle Analyses is about comparison of 2 or more solutions This implies that the following must be the same: 1. The Functionality of the product and/or service 2. The Quality of the product and/or service However, in innovation different solutions always differ in quality aspects. Do not try to bring these quality aspects in LCA (apply the ecocosts/value model) Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues www.ecocostsvalue.com
  37. 37. Issue 3. Allocation Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues When the output of a system has more than 1 product (or service), the ecoburden (Points 99, Eco-costs, CO2equi) has to be allocated according to their economic value: Source M. Goedkoop, www .pre.nl Lumber Sawdust Bark 10% 40% 50% mass   income 80% 20% 0%
  38. 38. “ classical” boundary limit eco-costs system Issue 4. Carbon sequestration (=capture&storage) www.ecocostsvalue.com Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues forests (plantation) production boxes paper mill wood use paper waste paper landfill waste paper CO2 CO2 Captured CO2 use boxes energy CO2 energy CO2 energy CO2 forests (plantation) production boxes paper mill wood use paper waste paper landfill waste paper CO2 CO2 Captured CO2 use boxes “ new” boundary limit Eco-indicator ’99 system: energy CO2 energy CO2 energy CO2
  39. 39. production use (20 yr) recycling 100% 40% Issue 5. Recycling percentage www.ecocostsvalue.com Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues
  40. 40. Issue 6. Cradle to Cradle calculations www.ecocostsvalue.com Fig. 2.3 Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues production Separation use maintenance materials energy Upgrading: - materials - waste materials Immobilization refinement production materials recycle flows object renovation re - use of components incineration Land fill production Separation use maintenance materials electr power plant Upgrading: - materials - waste materials Immobilization refinement production materials recycle flows object renovation re - use of components waste incineration Land fill storage
  41. 41. Cradle to Cradle = “closing the loop” Case: Rebicycle www.ecocostsvalue.com Fig. 3.1b Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues Input: materials energy transport Output: Bicyle electricity (land fill) (emissions to air) (emissions to water and ground) Case “Rebicycle” manufacturing Plantation (wood+oilseeds + flax, etcetera) Old Bicyle Power plant waste electr
  42. 42. Issue 7. Use LCA data right at the early design stages Output from Cambridge Engineering Selector (CES) Goal&Scope LCI LCIA Cases Issues www.ecocostsvalue.com Eco-costs (euro/kg) Fatigue strength at 10^7 cycles (Pa) the best choice
  43. 43. Success with your LCA ! (you may always mail me for questions joost”at”vogtlander.nl) Conclusions <ul><li>LCA for products is very simple because of the available databases </li></ul><ul><li>LCA for services is less simple because of the choice of functional unit and boundary limits </li></ul><ul><li>Take care how carbon sequestration is dealt with in databases </li></ul><ul><li>Cradle to cradle systems can be analysed with LCA, but it is sometimes a bit more difficult (contact me!) </li></ul><ul><li>Apply LCA data right from the beginning to select materials </li></ul>P P P

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