Types Of Muscle Training Pt2


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Types Of Muscle Training Pt2

  1. 1. Types of Muscle Training Part II
  2. 2. Periodization <ul><li>Superior to constant training </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple workouts, programs, & modalities </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes training stimulus change </li></ul><ul><li>Developed through overload principle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase amount of stress to stimulate adaptations (SAID principle) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Periodization <ul><li>Classical- based off of Eastern bloc programs in 1950’s </li></ul><ul><li>Four Phases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation: increase strength/muscle size (high volume/low intensity) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st Transition: optimize power and skill proficiency (decrease volume, increase intensity) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition (Peaking): sport specific, & demands of competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd Transition (Off-season): recovery and rehab, avoidance of complete detraining </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Periodization <ul><li>Westernized version: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesocylce: small number of training session with specific goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microcycle: run of mesocycles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macrocylce: includes all cycles </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Linear Periodization <ul><li>Progressive overloads to cause linear increases in volume </li></ul><ul><li>Theory: Develop muscle hypertrophy followed by improved nerve function and strength </li></ul><ul><li>Variations between microcycles (rep range) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Linear Periodization <ul><li>Volume and Intensity vary throughout entire macrocylce </li></ul><ul><li>Begin with high volume/low intensity progress to low volume/high intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Must be patient, do not progress too quickly </li></ul><ul><li>General Preparation Phase recommended for beginners </li></ul>
  7. 7. Linear Periodization <ul><li>High volume/low intensity: hypertrophy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>which enhances strength later due to increased muscle protein </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low volume/high intensity: larger demand for nervous system (motor unit recruitment) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased strength </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Essentials of Strength and Conditioning, 2 nd ed. pg 515, fig. 22.2
  9. 9. Nonlinear Periodization <ul><li>More frequent variation to enhance training stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Volume and intensity can be varied more versus linear, especially assistant exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Usually alternates hypertrophy and strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for flexibility in schedule </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Nonlinear Periodization <ul><li>Rotate from very heavy, heavy, moderate, to light </li></ul><ul><li>If session is missed, easier to pick-up vs being constrained by a certain mesocycle </li></ul><ul><li>All in all LP and NLP provide for hypertrophy and strength </li></ul><ul><li>Adherence is key </li></ul>
  11. 11. NLP example
  12. 12. Other Protocols <ul><li>Circuit Training: machine work, 8-12 exercises, cycle through 1-3 times </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhances CV & muscular endurance with moderate strength gains </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One-set program: circuit fashion, 8-12 reps to failure (HIT program) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Other Protocols <ul><li>Multi-set system: 2-3 warm-up sets followed by several work sets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For multi-joint: 5-6 reps w/ min. of 3 sets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must vary or plateau will occur </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Super-slow system: slow reps lasting from 20-60 sec. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory: muscular tension enhances strength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usu. only 1-2 sets for isolated joint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As rep time increases amount of resistance decreases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ROM receives less optimal strength stimulus </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Other Protocols <ul><li>Pyramid/Triangle Routine: start with either high reps and digress down or low reps and progress up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very time consuming due to rest factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for 2-3 exercises </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Super Setting: alternating 2 exercises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposing groups or different joints or particular body part </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Other Protocols <ul><li>Negative Resistance Training: lower more weight than you can in a concentric phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed to increase strength (very little research) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usu. only 105-110% of 1 RM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Split Routine System: various body parts on different days </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: arms, legs, abs- M-W-F / chest, shoulders, back- T-Th-Sa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for higher intensity of each group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keys on assistant exercises for all together strength </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Other Protocols <ul><li>Forced Rep System: once exhausted aid is used to get 3-4 more reps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase local muscle endurance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can create great muscular soreness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functional Isometrics: perform contraction for 4-6 inches then max effort against immovable object for 5-7 seconds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase strength in certain part of ROM </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Other Protocols <ul><li>Rest-Pause System: near max resistance, take 10-15 rest b/w reps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At least one set </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible greatest gains in stength </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Priority System: perform major goal exercises first </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used with all programs </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Other Protocols <ul><li>Complex, Concurrent, Contrast, or Cross-training: train all 3 energy pathways concurrently </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for many sports for energy system utilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutually beneficial to different goals </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Training Modalities <ul><li>Constant External Resistance Devices: Absolute load does not change during exercise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not correct for leverage during movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activates stabilizers, no limit to ROM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DB, barbell, kettle bells, objects </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Training Modalities <ul><li>Variable Resistance Devices: change in load over ROM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not fit everyone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed ROM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolates joints and muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Machines, cable systems, rubber tubing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Plyometric Training <ul><li>Trains speed, power, and starting stength </li></ul><ul><li>Utilizes Stretch-Shortening Cycle (SSC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eccentric loading into ballistic concentric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize isometric b/w ec & concentric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow for enhanced concentric contraction due to preactivation during eccentric </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Plyometric Training <ul><li>Increase in power output depends on load and time and ability to induce force-enhancing prestretch </li></ul><ul><li>Slight stretch stores elastic energy which is added to force of concentric action </li></ul><ul><li>Results in quicker recruitment of fibers of more fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Key aspect is countermovement </li></ul>
  23. 23. Training Recommendations <ul><li>Max Strength: Heavy loads/low reps, long rest, 2-3 days </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertrophy: moderate loads/8-12 reps, 1-3 sets, 1-2 min rest, 2-3 days </li></ul><ul><li>Power: high velocity, 3-6 reps, 1-3 sets, 2-3 min rest, may also want to enhance strength </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular endurance: light loads, high reps, short rest (dependent on load) </li></ul>
  24. 24. “Project” <ul><li>Find article based on resistance training and conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Write summary and reflection on article </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size 12 font, double spaced, no longer than 1 page, but more than 150 words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document article </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bring to class next Monday (Oct. 5) be prepared to discuss with class </li></ul><ul><li>Will not be accepted as late as it is part of class discussion for that day </li></ul>