Forecasts suggest that one-third of heads will retire by 2012 – From National College’s leadership demand and supply model and based on a 5 year period between 2008/9 – 2012/13 The headteacher retirement rate continues to rise until at least 2012 and we need to continue to keep headship vacancies low and stable. Local Authorities continue to report recruitment challenges The number of schools without a permanent headteacher remains a cause for concern Primary re-advertisement rates remain too high and average field sizes for headship vacancies too small (an average of 4.8 applications per headship post and 2.7 candidates at interview) Headship re-advertisement rates for faith schools remain high (57% for catholic schools and 43% for CofE schools) Ensuring governor choice and reducing the costs associated with re-advertising headship posts is important Increasing diversity is crucial: Black, Asian and minority ethnic teachers (< 5%) and women (majority of workforce but less likely to be head) remain under-represented at senior leadership level – and there are issues re disability, LGBT, faith and age Talent spotting and nurturing, distributing leadership, developing different leadership roles and models, system leadership supporting retention and diversifying leadership are all crucial
I’ve presented to the group before on the Day in the Life Study, which identified how heads spend their time. What is clear is that a considerable proportion of that time is spent undertaking tasks that we would not ask of CEOs in other organisations. Yet we know that in the current context more than ever we need heads and senior leaders to focus on the strategic leadership and development of the school. The conversation I sat in on around DHT a few weeks ago constantly returned to the question of how that can best be assured.
Need to understand the mechanisms and conditions that make these effective – each can be misused e.g. teacher evaluation
Changes in arrangements are helping schools to cope with an increasingly complex education agenda. The local context plays an important role in how new approaches to leadership are chosen and structured. Innovative frameworks for governance and leadership are often adopted in tandem with traditional approaches to leadership and management. For example, successful leaders pay close attention to teaching and learning even when they delegate day-to-day management of it to other leaders. New leadership arrangements are seen as liberating by some staff but may increase the constraints and pressures felt by others. The pace of change is rapid. There are signs of a move towards a more coordinated and systematic approach to educational provision with more schools collaborating with a range of partners. There are significant changes in leadership and management roles and responsibilities of those working in schools.
Joan: You can skip through this slide if concerned about time. The points I’d make are that: The picture is fast moving and these figures are probably under-estimates Therefore evidence is still emerging and there are challenges around identifying policy and practice implications (NB: see point in Word briefing about ASCL’s concerns about some new models). What is nonetheless clear is that schools and school leaders are embracing new models as a way of improving outcomes and securing sustainable partnerships (ie it’s not all top down)
Leadership Research & Policy Development Workshop Toby Greany, Operational Director - Research and Policy, National College and Chris Flynn, DCSF Presentation at DCSF Conference: The Use of Evidence in Policy Development and Delivery, 9 February 2010
Effective leadership is essential to improve the efficiency and equity of schooling worldwide (Pont et al, OECD, 2008).
ii. Heads in England today take more decisions and bear more responsibility than anywhere else in the world except the Netherlands. Leadership is therefore at an even greater premium. (Pont et al, OECD, 2008)
School leadership is second only to classroom teaching as an influence on pupil learning. (Leithwood et al, 2006).
’ Successful school leaders improve teaching and learning and thus pupil outcomes … most powerfully through their influence on staff motivation, commitment, teaching practices and through developing teachers’ capacities for leadership.’ ( Day, Sammons, Hopkins, Harris, Leithwood et al. DCSF, 2009)
iv. We know from our inspection data that for every 100 schools that have good leadership and management, 93 will have good standards of achievement. For every 100 schools that do not have good leadership and management, only 1 will have good standards of achievement. There is not a single example of a school turning around its performance in the absence of good leadership. (DCSF 2008)
v. Variation within-schools (WSV) in England is significantly above OECD averages (PISA, 2006) and is between five and 14 times greater than between school variance. Effective middle leadership is central to reducing within-school variation. (Reynolds, 2008)
Director of Research oversaw programme of work focussed on understanding the nature and impact of effective leadership and leadership development, also oversaw evaluation work
Developed key concepts (eg distributed leadership, Learning Centred Leadership) and identified some key priorities (eg Succession planning)
Strong focus on engagement with leaders themselves (eg Research Associates programme supporting practitioner research), development of practical resources (eg FutureSight toolkit) and communication of research findings
Separate, timebound research and development programme: Networked Learning Communities
Review of 5 years’ research
Ongoing focus on understanding the nature and impact of effective leadership and leadership development, characterised by strong engagement with the profession.
Formal link to policy (Director of Research and Policy) and knowledge management, with separate Director of Evaluation and Impact
Smaller, timebound research programmes/campaigns focussed on strategic priorities (eg succession planning) and with strong emphasis on communication
Lead role in developing curriculum for College provision/programmes
From 2009, with new College remit, new team focussed on researching leadership of Children’s Services
Current and future programmes
New Models of Leadership (ongoing)
Every Child’s Future Matters (closes summer 2010)
Reducing Variability and Narrowing the Gap (ongoing)
Leadership Development (2006 onwards, includes College curriculum and links to programmes)
Overview of why leadership matters and research and evaluation work at the National College
School leadership supply: the succession planning programme
School leadership quality: learning from outstanding leadership and the College’s leadership curriculum
School leadership deployment: National Leaders of Education and leadership for 21 st Century Schools
Children’s Services Leadership
Quality: School Leadership Today What we know about school leadership, NCSL, 2006 2 The quality of school leadership is the best it has ever been, and improving (Ofsted). Good leaders employ good teachers, and help develop their skills (Barber and Mourshed, 2007).
improving learning and
shaping vision and
delivery of schools for the future
improving behaviour and pupil engagement
working with other agencies to regenerate areas and improve wider outcomes.
Growth of teams - the average secondary school now has five deputy or assistant heads compared with 3.4 in 2001 – but issues re diversity and succession planning. Schools supporting schools: growing expectation that schools will take greater responsibility for each other’s improvement. Changing and evolving Focused on leadership capacity Complex, accountable, relentless AND rewarding Learning- centred Distributed across staff and professional disciplines Responsive to its context More collaborative than ever Data and evidence based Successful school leadership today is
Quality: understanding a headteacher’s working week Source: A Day in the Life of a Headteacher, NCSL, 2007 “ Evidence suggests many school leaders are too involved in operational and delivery matters and that this has been, to some extent, at the expense of embracing their more strategic imperatives.” Independent Review of School Leadership, DCSF/PWC, 2007 Strategic leadership , 7.1 Management , 15.0 Administration , 23.5 External stakeholders , 17.0 Internal stakeholders , 8.8 CPD, 9.0 Personal issues , 4.2 Various tasks unspecified times, 14.0 NB. Percentages do not total 100 due to rounding
Quality: all skills are seen as important Base: All (1500) Very important Not at all important
How important do you feel that the following skills are for the school leaders of today and tomorrow?
Quality: focusing the curriculum on what matters Prof Vivianne Robinson, 2008
Building quality: the College’s Review of Provision and a new curriculum for school leadership
Personal leadership and effectiveness
Leading Teaching and Learning
Growing leaders and leading learning organisations
Outward facing, collaborative and multi-agency leadership
Too rigid Mainly course based Modest entry standards. 50% went on to headship How the NPQH has changed Quality: National Professional Qualification for Headship Encourages autonomous leaders. Tailored to participants’ development needs Mainly ‘on the job’ Much more rigorous assessment on entry. Applicants must be 12-18 months from headship The programme was redesigned in 2008 to be more tightly focussed on those intending and ready to become a head teacher within 12-18 months
Estimates suggest that 35% of schools are now led by an NPQH graduate (2007 Pensions data / NPQH records)
Schools that were led by NPQH graduates for all of the three year period from 2004/05 to 2006/07 achieved faster rates of improvement in their exam results compared to those without an NPQH head.
Our evidence shows that NPQH graduate heads take schools out of special measures more quickly
i) The NPQH Curriculum ii) Impact and reach of NPQH:
The curriculum is based on the current national standards for head teachers: i) Shaping the future; ii) Leading teaching and learning; iii) Developing self and working with others; iv) Managing the organisation; v) Securing accountability; vi) Strengthening community.
Candidates undertake a rigorous assessment process at the beginning to assess their preparedness and development needs. They also face an appearance before a viva style graduation board –including head teachers –at the end of the programme.
Building leadership quality: the College’s provision Primary schools that are more engaged with the College’s leadership development programmes have consistently achieved faster rates of improvement in Key Stage 2 results
Building leadership quality: the College’s provision Secondary schools that are more engaged with the College’s leadership development programmes have consistently achieved faster rates of improvement in GCSE results.
Most schools still fit traditional model of headship (eg 78% of primaries and 39% of secondaries have no senior support staff on leadership team – PWC, 2007)
One in ten schools say they are in a formal collaborative (PWC)
2009 survey of 50 LAs found 264 schools in 122 federations. 88% involved 2 schools, 8.5% three-schools, remainder larger. 81% had joint Headteacher, 19% did not. 15% had a joint governing body, 85% did not.
Analysis of these federations against comparator schools found evidence of positive impact on pupil outcomes from federation, particularly in ‘Performance Federations’ (ie high and low performing schools together, which represented 15.6% of the sample).
124 Trust schools open and a further 444 schools have applied for Trust status.
40 sponsors of multiple academies either open or in the pipeline. 15 “all-through” academies are open or planned.
Over 300 NLE/NSS now accredited, supporting 220 struggling schools in May 2009. NLE/NSSs will increase to 500 by 2012 (300 primary and 200 secondary).
200-400 Executive Heads? (research forthcoming)
Deployment and new models of leadership: the current-ish picture
The vast majority of current DCSs describe themselves as White British
Just over half of current DCSs are female
The average tenure would be 5 to 7 years as system currently operates
This equates to an annual turnover of 19% or ~30 DCSs
This is slightly higher but fairly consistent with historical data – there was a 15% turnover of DCSs in 2008, but this is highly volatile
A small scale survey of the voluntary sector suggests that: other Children’s Services professionals are interested in the DCS role; one third of respondents said the option of becoming a DCS in the future appealed to them. 80% of Tier-2 and Tier-3 survey respondents perceive there to be barriers to them entering the DCS role in the future. These barriers include: - experience, expertise, skills - age - politics; and - lack of confidence in own abilities Our research has established that there is a succession planning challenge in children's services: McKinseys&Co/National College/CWDC, 2009
The average age of Tier-2 managers is 51 years
The average age of those who said the option of becoming a DCS appeals to them is slightly younger at 50 years
The average age of Tier-3 managers is 50 years
The average age of those who said the option of becoming a DCS appeals to them is younger at 47 years