Inclusion, The Individual And The Environment - Session One


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Special Educational Needs and/or disabilities: a training resource for secondary undergraduate Initial Teacher Training courses

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Inclusion, The Individual And The Environment - Session One

  1. 1. Special educational needs and/or disabilities Training toolkit Session 1 Development and diversity Inclusion, the individual and the environment
  2. 2. Learning outcomes <ul><li>You will: </li></ul><ul><li>understand how the terms ‘inclusion’, ‘special educational needs’ (SEN) and ‘disability’ are used </li></ul><ul><li>understand the context provided by the statutory and regulatory frameworks for SEN and/or disability </li></ul><ul><li>know about the duties on schools and staff in SEN and/or disability </li></ul><ul><li>know of key recent documents on SEN and/or disability </li></ul><ul><li>understand the difference between ‘within-child’ and ‘environmental’ models of disability </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning outcomes <ul><li>You will: </li></ul><ul><li>understand how the term inclusion is used </li></ul><ul><li>be introduced to current guidance on inclusion </li></ul>Activity 1
  4. 4. Associated feelings <ul><li>Inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>valued </li></ul><ul><li>at ease </li></ul><ul><li>content </li></ul><ul><li>happy </li></ul><ul><li>useful </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusion </li></ul><ul><li>rejected </li></ul><ul><li>upset </li></ul><ul><li>angry </li></ul><ul><li>frustrated </li></ul><ul><li>unhappy </li></ul><ul><li>hard done by </li></ul><ul><li>useless </li></ul>
  5. 5. Learning outcomes <ul><li>You will understand: </li></ul><ul><li>how the term ‘inclusion’ applies to the work of a school </li></ul><ul><li>the importance of inclusive treatment of staff as well as students </li></ul>Activity 2
  6. 6. Principles of an inclusive education service <ul><li>Inclusion is a process by which schools, local authorities and others develop their cultures, policies and practices to include students </li></ul><ul><li>With the right teaching and support nearly all children with SEN and/or disabilities can be included successfully in mainstream education </li></ul><ul><li>An inclusive education service offers excellence and choice and incorporates the views of parents and children </li></ul><ul><li>The interests of all students must be safeguarded </li></ul>
  7. 7. Defining inclusion <ul><li>“ Inclusion in education involves the processes of increasing the participation of students in, and reducing their exclusion from, the cultures, curricula and communities of local schools. Inclusion is concerned with the learning participation of all students vulnerable to exclusionary pressures, not only those with impairments or categorised as SEN. Inclusion is concerned with improving schools for staff as well as for students.” </li></ul><ul><li>CSIE, 2002, Index for Inclusion: Developing learning and participation in schools </li></ul>
  8. 8. Learning outcomes <ul><li>You will understand: </li></ul><ul><li>the relevance of the Every Child Matters (ECM) outcomes to inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>the importance of high expectations within the statutory inclusion statement in the National Curriculum </li></ul>Activity 3
  9. 9. ECM outcomes <ul><li>Being healthy </li></ul><ul><li>Staying safe </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoying and achieving </li></ul><ul><li>Making a positive contribution </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving economic well-being </li></ul>
  10. 10. National curriculum inclusion principles <ul><li>Teachers must not ignore the three principles of inclusion in their planning and teaching </li></ul><ul><li>The statement is flexible so that teachers can match their plans to the needs of all students </li></ul>
  11. 11. Expectations, expectations <ul><li>“ I like difficult tasks. Easy tasks are too simple and I don’t feel like I’ve achieved anything when I have finished them.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I like challenging tasks because when I get them right I feel like I’ve learnt something new.” </li></ul>
  12. 12. Learning outcomes <ul><li>You will: </li></ul><ul><li>know the range of criteria suggested by Ofsted for school self-assessment </li></ul><ul><li>understand how the criteria bring together quantitative data and qualitative judgements </li></ul><ul><li>understand how the ECM outcomes relate to the criteria </li></ul>Activity 4
  13. 13. Learning outcomes <ul><li>You will understand that: </li></ul><ul><li>a ‘learning difficulty’ varies with the context of the learning </li></ul><ul><li>the language and power of those involved in discussions affect decisions about SEN and/or disability </li></ul><ul><li>these insights have contributed to a shift from ‘within-child’ to more ‘environmental’ constructions of SEN and/or disability </li></ul>Activity 5
  14. 14. Adam’s days <ul><li>“ After following Adam for 18 months, we gave up specifying his traits as the explanations of his behaviour and began talking instead about what happened around him daily that seemed to organize his moments as an LD person.” </li></ul><ul><li>R P McDermott, 1993, On Becoming Labelled – The story of Adam </li></ul>
  15. 15. Adam’s days (continued…) <ul><li>“ The point of this story is that a person’s competence is interwoven with the context and cannot be viewed as separate. This case points to the importance of recognising learning as being different in different institutional practices. The child learns in the realising of institutional practices in interaction with other persons. Neither the child nor the institutionalised activity/practice in itself create learning or learning problems.” </li></ul><ul><li>M Hedegaarde, 2001, A New Approach to Learning in Classrooms </li></ul>
  16. 16. The environment and the individual <ul><li>Corbett suggests that we should work to ensure that: </li></ul><ul><li>no one voice be allowed to dominate discussions </li></ul><ul><li>an ever-expanding space be allowed to “accommodate new voices which have remained silent or unheard in the clamour of status” </li></ul><ul><li>J Corbett, 1995, Bad-Mouthing: The language of special needs </li></ul>
  17. 17. Involvement in planning <ul><li>Which professional or other groups, including the young person and their parent or carer, were involved, or had been involved in any way in deciding on the actions of the school when the new headteacher took over? </li></ul><ul><li>Was the development process negotiated so that everyone had a say? </li></ul><ul><li>Were there any steps taken to ‘expand the space’ for people who might find it hard to join in? </li></ul><ul><li>What changes in the ‘hierarchy of decision making’ had taken place after the changes discussed in the film? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Learning outcome <ul><li>You will understand how statutory duties come together to provide equal opportunities for students with SEN and/or disabilities </li></ul>Activity 6
  19. 19. The SEN framework <ul><li>Provides legislation, regulations and guidance </li></ul><ul><li>Makes provision to meet SEN </li></ul><ul><li>Includes what schools provide from their delegated budgets and what local authorities provide from their centrally retained funds </li></ul><ul><li>The principal legislation in England and Wales is part 4 of the Education Act 1996, which was amended by the SEN and Disability Act 2001 </li></ul>
  20. 20. Special educational needs <ul><li>“ Children have special educational needs if they have a learning difficulty which calls for special educational provision to be made for them. Children have a learning difficulty if they have a significantly greater difficulty in learning than the majority of children of the same age or have a disability.” </li></ul><ul><li>DfES, 2001, SEN Code of Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Students with SEN are said to require something ‘additional to’ </li></ul><ul><li>or ‘different from’ that offered to other students </li></ul>
  21. 21. SEN and Disability Act 2001 SEN framework
  22. 22. Planning duties <ul><li>The DDA requires schools and local authorities to </li></ul><ul><li>increase access to education for disabled students </li></ul><ul><li>They have a duty to plan for improvements: </li></ul><ul><li>in access to the curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>to the physical environment of the school to increase access to education and associated services </li></ul><ul><li>in providing information in a range of formats for disabled students </li></ul>
  23. 23. SEN and Disability Act 2001 Planning duties SEN arrangements
  24. 24. Disability discrimination duties <ul><li>The DDA requires schools and local authorities to protect disabled students against discrimination in schools </li></ul>
  25. 25. Definition of disability <ul><li>The DDA defines a disabled person as someone who has “a physical or mental impairment which has a substantial and long-term adverse effect on his or her ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities”. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical or mental impairment includes sensory impairments and hidden impairments. In the DDA, “substantial” means “more than minor or trivial” and “long-term” means a year or more. </li></ul>
  26. 26. SEN and Disability Act 2001 Planning duties SEN arrangements Disability discrimination duties
  27. 27. <ul><li>Disabled students and potential students </li></ul><ul><li>Every school and every aspect of school life: admissions, education and associated services,exclusions </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘responsible body’ for the school </li></ul>Who and what is covered? Protection from discrimination
  28. 28. Two key duties <ul><li>Responsible bodies: </li></ul><ul><li>must not treat disabled students less favourably </li></ul><ul><li>must make reasonable adjustments for disabled students </li></ul>Protection from discrimination
  29. 29. Every aspect of school life <ul><li>Admissions </li></ul><ul><li>Education and associated services </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusions </li></ul>
  30. 30. Every school <ul><li>Maintained, independent </li></ul><ul><li>Mainstream, special </li></ul><ul><li>Nursery, primary, secondary, including school sixth forms </li></ul><ul><li>Community, voluntary, foundation or city academy </li></ul>
  31. 31. Learning outcomes <ul><li>You will: </li></ul><ul><li>know where sources of support on SEN and disability can be found in your placement school and on the internet </li></ul><ul><li>identify key points of action for yourself to consolidate and apply your learning </li></ul>Activity 7
  32. 32. SENCOs <ul><li>Have responsibilities at individual student and whole-school level – they may take charge of budgeting, resource allocation and timetables, and also work with individual students </li></ul><ul><li>Often advise, appraise and train staff, and liaise with other professionals </li></ul>
  33. 33. Routes to support <ul><li>Tutor and mentor are your first contacts </li></ul><ul><li>Students can say what works best for them </li></ul><ul><li>Parents/carers can give valuable insights </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum leaders can help with subject learning and SEN and/or disability issues </li></ul>
  34. 34. Routes to support <ul><li>Becta − hosts discussion groups on areas of SEN </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour4Learning – positive approaches to behaviour management for teacher trainers, trainees and mentors </li></ul><ul><li>SENCO − can advise and help you learn from specialists such as educational psychologists and therapists </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Training Resource Bank (TTRB) </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Support Network – practical and emotional support for staff </li></ul>