Excellence And Equity


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Excellence and Equity: Making England's Schools System World Class. An investigation into the performance of England's education system.

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Excellence And Equity

  1. 1. Excellence and equity – Making England’s school system world class DCSF Research Conference 21 November 2008 Steve Leman Strategic Analysis, DCSF 0
  2. 2. Origin of the project • England a very good but not top performer in international pupil attainment studies • Need better understanding of factors behind our performance • Establish a framework for analysing the characteristics of high-performing school systems • Articulate what it means to be ”world class” • Identify the specific policy levers to which benchmarking countries attribute their success 1
  3. 3. Government expenditure on education has increased rapidly and is growing faster than in many of the largest OECD economies Government expenditure on education per capita CAGR £ 1998-2004 1,500 Sweden 4.1 1,400 United States 5.3 1,300 1,200 France 2.5 1,100 England* 8.3 1,000 900 3.7 Italy 800 Japan -1.0 700 Germany 0.8 600 500 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 * England expenditure taken from DCSF Source: OECD National accounts of OECD Countries General Government Accounts 1994-2005 Vol. 4, DCSF Departmental Reports 2005,2004, Annual Abstract 2007 and Oxford Economic Forecasting Model 2
  4. 4. The number of failing schools has decreased steadily over the last 10 years Number of schools below basic minimum threshold percentages of students Below 15% achieving 5A*-Cs at GCSE Below 20% Below 25% 1,600 Below 30% 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 The number of schools with less than 30% of students getting 5A*-Cs at GCSE has halved in the last 10 years Source: DCSF and Children and Young People Today: Evidence to Support the Children’s Plan 2007 3
  5. 5. Teaching standards improved rapidly until 2001 after which standards appear to have reached a plateau Ofsted quality of teaching scores % 80 Ofsted standards 75 recalibrated 70 65 60 Good + outstanding 55 50 45 40 Satisfactory 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 Inadequate 0 1996/97 1997/98 1998/99 1999/00 2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 Source: Ofsted composite of teaching performance in primary and secondary scores compiled from Annual Reports 1996-97 to 2006-07 4
  6. 6. Results have risen steadily but there remains considerable room for improvement Students achieving level 4 or above at Key Stage 2 Students achieving minimum thresholds at GCSE % % 100 100 95 95 90 90 2006 target Science 85 85 5A*-Gs 80 English 80 75 Mathematics 75 70 70 65 65 2006 5A*-Cs target 5A*-Cs 60 60 55 55 50 50 45 45 5A*-Cs 40 40 including 60% of children achieved Maths and 35 Level 4 in all three subjects 35 English 30 in 2007 (in other words 4 30 25 out of 10 children leaving 25 20 primary school did not) 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 Source: DCSF, SFR 41-2007 and SFR 34-2007 5
  7. 7. While exam performance has improved, a significant proportion of school leavers still do not go onto employment, education or training 16–18 year olds neither in education, employment, nor training, (NEETs) % 12 11 10 9 The proportion of NEETs has 8 fluctuated around the 7 same level for the last 10 years 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Source: DCSF, Participation in Education, Training and Employment by 16-18 year olds in England, 2006 6
  8. 8. International evidence from PIRLS shows that after a substantial rise England’s average results in reading have declined slightly since 2001 Trends in reading achievement Difference IEA 1991 PIRLS 2001 PIRLS 2006 between 2001 and average scale average scale average scale 2006 scores Country score score score Russian Federation n/a 528 565 37 Hong Kong SAR 514 528 564 36 Singapore 522 528 558 30 United states 543 542 540 -2 Netherlands 494 554 547 -7 England 507* 553 539 -14 -23 Romania n/a 512 489 England performed very strongly in PIRLS 2001, but its performance trajectory in reading between 2001 and 2006, was third worst out of a total sample set of 35, and absolute scores were some way short of the leaders *England (& Wales) IEA result taken from 1996 study Source: PIRLS International report 2006 and Brooks et al Reading Performance at Nine, NFER 1996 7
  9. 9. England’s performance in the latest PISA survey confirm that performance is at or above the OECD mean but short of world class Finland (for England OECD mean comparison) Science 516 500 563 Reading 495 492 547 Mathematics 498 498 548 Source: OECD PISA database 2006 8
  10. 10. Performance variance in England is higher than the OECD average and strongly skewed towards within-school difference % variance between students’ science scores explained by each source of difference Variance within the OECD Variance within England Total relative Of which Total relative Of which to OECD Between Between Within to OECD Between Within average* countries schools schools average* schools schools 26% 27% 100% 27% 126% 99% 47% Performance variations between countries are relatively small – variation within countries explains nearly 3 times as47% of the total variation between much students. Variation in the England is higher than the OECD average and strongly skewed towards within-school difference *Expressed as a percentage of OECD average variation between students Source: OECD PISA database 2006, figure 5.19a, PISA Science Competencies for Tomorrow’s world 2006, Vol. 1, p266, OECD PISA database 2006, table S4a, PISA Science Competencies for Tomorrow’s world 2006, Vol. 2, p276 9
  11. 11. Performance retains a strong link to socioeconomic background in England Relationship between free school meals (FSM) Relationship between students achieving 5A*-Cs and achieving 5 or more GCSEs at A*-C at GCSE and parental background % % Higher professional 78 Not eligible for FSM 57 Lower professional 62 Intermediate 50 All children 52 Lower supervisory 32 Eligible for FSM 25 Routine 30 Other 30 Pupils who are eligible for free school meals are Pupils with professional parents are more than twice as less than half as likely to get five or more GCSEs at likely to attain 5 A*-C grades at GCSE than those grades A*-C compared to children who don’t receive whose parents are in lower supervisory or routine jobs free school meals Source: DCSF, The Children’s Plan 2007, ONS and team analysis 10
  12. 12. We are above average, but socioeconomic factors have a greater influence on science scores in England than in world class school systems PISA 2006 mean science test scores and impact of socioeconomic background World class Impact of ESCS below OECD average PISA science score Impact of ESCS not significantly different from OECD aver 565 OECD mean Finland 560 “We've moved our 555 schools from being 550 below average to being above average. 545 We've now got to make them world Hong Kong-China 540 class." Canada 535 Gordon Brown, September 2007 Estonia Japan 530 Australia 525 Korea 520 515 England 510 505 500 OECD mean 495 490 -16 -15 -14 -13 -12 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 % variance explained by PISA index of ESCS has less impact on test scores economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) Source: OECD PISA database 2006, table 4.4a, S4.c and, PISA Science Competencies for Tomorrow’s world 2006, Vol. 2, p123, p279 and BBC article Schools to become 'world class' 29th Sep 2007 11
  13. 13. To achieve world class status England must focus on reducing variability within the system “Few, if any, countries are doing more of the right things in policy terms than England, according to the PISA evidence base, but you have not (yet) translated this into consistent quality at classroom level.” - Andreas Schleicher, Head of the Indicators and Analysis Division of the OECD Directorate for Education Source: Expert interviews 2007 12
  14. 14. Three drivers of organisational performance must be addressed to reduce variability at the school-level Underlying performance models Lean definition School context In the highest performing schools all three of the The way physical assets and “The resources Operating resources are configured available in the models are mutually model and optimised to create classroom and school reinforcing value and minimise losses and how they are used” The formal structures, “How the school Management Management processes, and systems is organised and model through which the operating managed” model system is managed to deliver Operating the business objectives model Behavioural The way people think, feel, “What is discussed model Behavioural and conduct themselves in in the staffroom and model the workplace, both how people feel” individually and collectively Source: Lean manufacturing literature and team analysis 13
  15. 15. When schools are analysed by FSM bands it is clear that there is significant scope to improve performance by reducing variability The best performers in the cohort with highest FSM percentage outperform many of the schools in cohort with the lowest FSM percentage Source: DCSF presentation 14
  16. 16. England should do more to ensure that the highest quality teachers work with students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds In England the best teachers are in schools with the least …Lessons can be learned from current English programmes and proportion of low economic status students…. world class best practices % of pupils eligible for FSM* compared with Ofsted grading of • Teach First targeted approach secondary school teaching and learning** – Programme attracts top graduates to teach for at least two years in challenging secondary schools in London, North West and the Midlands – Currently only operates in 120 schools – Around 50% stay in teaching profession Satisfactory 18.9 – 50% of trainees were rated outstanding by Ofsted • Finland universal approach – Attract teachers from the top 10% of university cohorts – Require all teachers to have a Masters degree Good 9.2 – System of interventions to support individual students within schools – Each school has a number of special education teachers – On average there is one special education teacher for every 7.4 seven class teachers. Outstanding – These teachers intervene to support 30% of students – Highest achieving students receive additional instruction as well as those at risk, which has a de-stigmatising effect – Special education teachers are given an additional year of teacher training to support them in their role “The overall rate of FSM eligibility at the top schools is 3%, “Teach First- The outstanding level of achievement of the four best compared to a national secondary school average of 14.3%. Only trainees seen was so uniformly high across the range of Standards 6 schools within the top 200 have FSM rates which are equal to that they were judged by inspectors to be amongst the most or above the national average” exceptional trainees produced by any teacher training route” The Sutton Trust (2005) Ofsted (2007) * Free School Meals ** Based on sample of 60 Ofsted inspection reports 2007 for secondary schools Source: Sutton Trust- Rates of Eligibility for Free school meals at top state schools 2005, Ofsted Rising to the challenge: A review of the Teach First initial teacher training programme 2007 15
  17. 17. Singapore recruits top graduates into teaching and identifies and promotes high performers Overview Issues Singapore has one of the world’s top-performing school systems. The Singapore recruits top graduates into teaching but incumbent teachers system is highly centralised with most core teaching functions must also adapt to: managed directly by the Ministry of Education or the National Institute •Harness new technologies to improve learning environment of Education. As a result, teacher policies are very consistent across the system. •Respond to changing student attitudes and the evolution of learning Singapore performs very well along each of the three key teacher practices dimensions: •Change the emphasis for rote learning to greater critical thinking • It attracts high-calibre candidates into teaching (from the top •Ensure teaching creates a landscape of equal opportunities for every 30% of any academic cohort), and selects well from the student applicant pool. • It delivers distinctive teacher pre-service and in-service training, Singapore must also ensure that teaching remains an attractive career and good coaching and mentoring in schools. for new graduates relative to alternative careers in other industries • It manages teachers and schools effectively, with good systems for evaluating teachers, selecting and training principals, and monitoring the effectiveness of schools. Approach Operating model Management model Behavioural model • The best teachers are placed with the worst • Teacher recruitment is centralised and • Singaporean teachers receive a full year of students, to continuously develop the bottom designed to select candidates based on paid training before they start teaching, quartile personality, aptitude and attitude. followed by 100 hours of professional • Singapore created a three track system to • Individual teacher evaluation and the development each year thereafter retain good teachers. This allows teachers to evaluation of schools are strong. • Most training is delivered by the National progress in the career structure without Processes for selecting and training school Institute of Education, which provides a necessarily taking on leadership roles principals ensure quality management at very high quality of programs by the school level. international standards. • Senior teachers and master teachers are • NIE is guided by a belief that creating appointed in each school based on proven inspiring teachers who go beyond best teaching ability. practice are at the core of a strong education system Source: Expert interviews and team analysis 16
  18. 18. Singapore has a highly effective process for screening applicants to become new teachers Details • Check for minimum qualifications: – Academically, applicants should be in the top 30% of their age cohort CV Screening – Applicants should have completed relevant school and university education – Applicants must show evidence of interest in children and education • Check literacy: Assessment – Applicants must have a high level of literacy Only 1 in 6 tests – Evidence shows that teachers literacy effects applicants is achievement more than any other measurable variable accepted to become a • Check attitude, aptitude and personailty: teacher – Conducted by a panel of three experienced Interviews headmasters – May include practical tests or activities • Check attitude, aptitude and personailty: Monitoring – Teachers are monitored during their initial teacher at NIE training at NIE – A small number of candidates who do not demonstrate the required standards are removed from the course Source: Ministry of Education (Singapore) 17
  19. 19. Ontario has strong focus on partnerships between the Government and the teaching profession Overview Issues The government, elected in fall 2003, set out an ambitious and Historically (in the 1990s) Ontario’s education system had been extensive platform for education reform process whilst working in characterised by concerns about the quality and standard of partnership with teachers educational outcome and a difficult relationship between the • The Government’s first-term peace and stability priority was government and the teaching profession. highly successful in establishing four years of a positive climate • Substantial strike action had led to 26 million learning days where not a single learning day has been lost to teaching lost between 1996- 2004 strikes The Government’s second term also has “communication, • Educators’ criticisms about reducing funding communication, communication” as a top priority • A perception of mistrust between educators and the government • Public dissatisfaction with the education system • Growth in private school enrolment Approach Operating model Management model Behavioural model • Visibly better facilities to ensure confidence • Provincial Stability Commission established • A ‘guiding coalition’ of political and in resources amongst teachers in 2005 to resolve issues arising from professional leaders has been significant in the 2004-2008 teacher collective developing, communicating and continually • Funding for teacher federations to allow the agreements between English-language opportunity for them to learn from each improving the education strategy public school boards and Elementary other about the most effective practices Teachers' Federation of Ontario (ETFO) • Emphasis on building professional respect locals and partnership • Schools on the Move: Lighthouse Program • Constant communication both internally identifies schools that have improved and and with ‘the field’ (education sector) and are willing to share best practice with others collecting data on best practice Source: Fullan, M. Reaching Every Student A Smarter Ontario 2007 18
  20. 20. Hong Kong’s school system is decentralised with a strong accountability framework Overview Issues Hong Kong has one of the world’s top-performing school systems with Some commentators have criticised Hong Kong’s approach for being Hong Kong students scoring consistently well in international tests. too mechanical and putting students under too much pressure to perform Hong Kong’s school system is decentralised with a strong Hong Kong currently lacks a structured induction scheme so it is likely accountability framework consisting of national assessments and that some new teachers may not develop all of the required practical Ofsted-style inspections. teaching skills as quickly as in other systems. Almost all schools are independent but publicly-funded. School Enrolment in the school system is declining due to demographic Management Committees in each school have control over changes. As a result, 125 schools have been closed over the last five appointments and staff management, including the principal. years. There is a very high social premium on education leading to strong commitment and motivation from students, parents, teachers, and the community as a whole. Approach Operating model Management model Behavioural model • Teacher education is strong, with a very • National Assessments are conducted by an • The teaching profession is an attractive high provision of in-service training independent examinations authority (the career choice. Recruits come from the top • Teachers generally attend each others HKEAA ) at grades 3,6,9,11,13. 30% of the school-graduating cohort. lessons, collaborate in planning, and give • The Education and Manpower Bureau Teaching is attractive due to its high status, feedback. (EMB) carries out Ofsted-style inspections strong salaries, and good working against a set of quantitative and qualitative conditions. • Compared to counterparts in western systems, Hong Kong’s teachers are more indicators on a 4-year cycle. • The supply of teacher education is likely to focus their practice on learning controlled so that students entering (making sure that students have absorbed teacher education are highly likely to find a new knowledge and skills) rather than teaching position. teaching (making sure that they have taught the curriculum). Source: Interview with Peter Hill, team analysis 19
  21. 21. The Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) transforms the mindsets and behaviours of students and teachers Overview Issues KIPP, the Knowledge Is Power Program, is a national network Equity has long been a major problem in the US school of free, open-enrollment, college-preparatory public schools in system. under-resourced communities throughout the United States. A child growing up in a family earning over $90,000 has a 1 in There are currently 57 locally-run KIPP schools in 17 states 2 chance of getting a college degree by age 24; a child in a and Washington, DC, serving over 14,000 students. KIPP family earning $35,000 to $61,000 has a 1 in 10 chance; a schools have been widely recognised for putting underserved child in a family earning under $35,000 has a 1 in 17 chance. students on the path to college. KIPP strategically opens schools in high need areas More than 80 percent of KIPP students are low-income and throughout the country in order to serve those communities. more than 90 percent are African American or Hispanic/Latino. Nearly 80 percent of KIPP alumni have matriculated to college Approach Operating model Management model Behavioural model • Intense schooling model • KIPP puts a great deal of emphasis on • A very strong commitment required • Long school day (7:30 am to 5 pm) finding the right leaders for its schools. from pupils, parents teachers • Additional classroom work and They must be entrepreneurial and • “We do whatever effort is necessary to extracurricular activities passionate about improving education enable the children to learn” for the community. • Two hours of homework per night • "We are never going to end the day on average shrugging our shoulders and making • Saturday classes every other week excuses. If there's a problem, if something is impeding the success of • Three weeks of summer school our kids, that needs to be solved one • Good catch up arrangements for way or another." students Source: KIPP Foundation website and team analysis 20
  22. 22. Average test score growth shows dramatic improvements in KIPP schools compared to non-KIPP schools Mean SAT 9 Scale Score Gain Comparison, DC KIPP gain Normal gain 72 52 41 32 29 29 29 23 19 18 15 13 Total maths Problem solving Procedures Total reading Reading Reading vocabulary comprehension Source: Doran,H.C and Drury, D.W Evaluating success: KIPP Educational Program Evaluation, New American Schools Education Performance Network, 2002 21
  23. 23. Introducing new accountability systems in New York City as part of the Children First reforms Overview Issues Mayor Bloomberg together with the Schools Chancellor, Joel Klein, One of the three pillars of the Children First Reform is accountability to took control of all schools in New York City in 2002. This includes “give principals, teachers, and parents the information they need to 1,400 schools with 1.1 million students and 140,000 employees. Many track academic progress, demand changes when there are problems, of the schools in the system had been failing for many years and and achieve results—with full and transparent accountability to graduation rates in New York City were amongst the lowest in the parents and no excuses for failure” country at 50.8%. However, to introduce such a radical new system the Department “Our mission over the next four years will be: To create—from pre- needed to: school through high school—a public education system second to • Build the new data systems and reports none. We will strengthen the three pillars of our school reform: • Introduce processes to cascade the data throughout the system Leadership, Accountability, and Empowerment, putting resources • Train school leaders and teachers to interpret the information and authority where they belong: in the schools of our city” • Develop support systems and tools to help teachers improve classroom practice if opportunities are detected Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg, January 1, 2006 Approach Operating model Management model Behavioural model • Built a new data warehouse, the • Develop school based “inquiry teams” • The stated mission of inquiry teams is “to Achievement Reporting and Innovation tasked with interpreting reports and setting expand the sphere of success at every System (ARIS), to collect and collate data action plans to address any issues school” on pupil characteristics and progress and identified. These cross-functional teams • The accountability pilots explicitly involved examples of best practice include school leaders, teachers, non- feedback on how the tools are working so • Put in-place an annual performance teaching staff, parents, school support that the central team could refine and monitoring cycle for all schools including: organisations and senior achievement improve they system before full Progress Reports, Quality Reviews and facilitators deployment Periodic Assessments • Reports are publically available with • Each team was encouraged to come up rewards and consequences aligned with with tailored solutions that were unique to results (e.g. bonuses for highly rated each school teachers) Source: New York City Department of Education website and team analysis 22